New Delhi


First published, 1997


ISBN 81-86471-15-4

Published by P.K. Goel for Aditya Prakashan, F-14/65, Model Town II,

Delhi- 110 009 and printed at Rajkamal Electric Press, Delhi -110 033.


Tibetans will always remain grateful to such pat Indian scholars and

adepts as Shantarakshita, Padmasambhava and Dipamkara Shrijnana,

who brought the Buddha's teac:hings to the Land of Snows. Despite the

difficulties they faced, they spent the b'est part of their lives propaga~

and explaining the teachings of Sutra and Tantra for the Welfare of all

sentient beings. Kings, ministers, scholars and a whole class of

translators worked unceasingly to render Sanskrit texts and their

commentaries into Tibetan.

Aduuya Kamalashila (9th century CB), a disciple of Shantarakshita, was

the first Indian scholar to live and compose his writings in Tibet.

Bhavana-lcrama (Stages of Meditation) is one such work. It comprises

three parts which were probably written at different times. The focus of

Bhavana-lcrama is the cultivation of meditative concentration and special

insight. It details the sequence of meditational practices essential for

understanding the true nature of phenomena.

While Tibetan and Sanskrit editions of Bhavana-lcrama have been in

existence for centuries, no English translation of this remarkable classic

was readily available. Therefore, in response to my own suggesticm.

Professor P.N. Sharma has undertaken the task of translating it into

English. I am confident that whether they have an academic and.

historical view of the transmission of Buddhism to Tibet or a wish to put

these teachings into actual practice, English readers will find this

translation of great value.

November 5, 1996


My profoundest gratitude is due to His Holiness the Dalai

Lama for assigning the work of translation to me and for

giftin8 a copy ofBHAV ANA-KRAMA from his personal library.

Thanks are also due t~ my friend, Gyatsho Tshering, Director,

Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala, for

making available to me library facilities including xeroxing of

the.MS and to the staff of LTWA for their assistance and


Thanks are also due to Mr. Pradeep Goel, Aditya

Prakashari, publisher of this book.



1. Introduction 9

2. Bhivanikrama.-1 13

-3. Bhivanakrama-D 51

4. Bhivanakrama-m 77

5. Glossary-1 101

6. Glossary-D 117

7. Glossary-III 123


Kamalasila is one of those distinguished acharyas who

went to Tibet from India, stayed there and wrote scholarly

treatises on Buddha dharma. His historic debate with and

victory over the Chinese monk, Hoshang, is considered as a

~andmark in the annals of the spread of Buddhism in Bod.

'Bhavana-krama' is one of his more important writings and

comprises three chapters. Fortified with extensive quotes

from innumerable sutras, it delineates the 'krama' or sequence

of meditational practice a seeker should undertake in

order to attain 'sarvajftata', the true knowledge of things.

Whereas the first and the third chapters had for long been

extant in Sanskrit, the second chapter was available in Tibetan

version alone. It was left to Prof. Gyaltsen Namdol of the

Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Varanasi to render

the second chapter back into Sanskrit from Tibetan. The

Institute brought out the complete version along with the

Tibetan and Hindi translations. The present work is the first:ever

English rendering from original Sanskrit done at the

suggestion of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the great

Compassionate One, to whose gracious and constant

blessings I can never adequately match my humble gratitude.

Dharamsala ParmanandaSharma


Padmasambhava, Santaraksita, Dipankara Srijiiana and

Kamalasila together make the foursome of the great masters

who made the Dharma what it came to be in Tibet. To

Santaraksita and Kamalasila - the teacher-pupil duo - goes

the credit of propagating, preaching and developing

Buddhism in Bod in all its varied nuances, thus lending it

purity, originality and authenticity.

Kamalasila wrote his 'Bhavanakrama I in Tibet itself,

keeping in view the special requirements of his Tibetan

audience. Hence, his style here is that of a lucid prose-writer

who deliberately clothed his lofty and abstract theme in

simple, intelligible Sanskrit which is quite different from his

diction in other works.

'B4avanakrama' is the first-ever Sanskrit text written by

any Indian acharya on the soil of Tibet. With the passage of

time, copies of Bhavana-krama manuscripts dwindled in the

monastic libraries of the country as the study of Sanskrit

declined. The second chapter in original totally disappeared

and whatever manuscripts remained became truncated. Of

course, the Tibetan version continued to be extant in its

entirety. Prof. Tucci retrieved Chapter I from Tibet and

Chapter III from Russia in original Sanskrit and he published

the two in Roman script.

Not much, by way of biographical information on

Kamalasila, is on record. He appears to have visited Tibet

during the reign of Trison-De-tsen, the 37th King (742-798

A.D.), who invited, among others, Acharya Santaraksita of

Nalanda and later Padmasambhava from Urgyan to Tibet. The

latter succeeded where the former had failed; the Tibetans

took readily to the teachings and practices of the

'mahasiddha I rather than to the intellectual scholasticism of

Santaraksita who went back to India only to return later and

leave his mortal coil on the soil of Tibet after many years of

missionary work. Before Santaraksita died, he had predicted,

it is said, that a time would come when the Indian and


Chinese schools would come into sharp conflict on the

concepts of gradual and instant enlightenment as respectively

advocated by the two sides. So he had instructed that when

the exigency arose KamalaSila, his able pupil from Nalanda,

should be invited to defend the Indian point of view about the

interpretation of Sutra. A religious debate was arranged

between acharya Kamalasila and Hoshang, the Cpinese

monk. It was held at Samye and covered a period of two years

(792-794 A.D.). The Chinese Hoshang was defeated and the

king, himself a great scholar, declared KamalaSila the victor.

To mark the great Indian acharya's triumph, a royal

proclamation was also issued in letters of gold inscribed on

blue paper. This document was ordered to be preseiVed as a

court document. The main features of the proclamation were

as historic as the occasion that had led to it; the Three Gems

('tri-ratna') to be never abandoned; monasteries to be

maintained and supported; all succeeding kings and members

of royalty to uphold the Proclamation. Ministers and princes

and army commanders took oaths of loyalty to the document

of which thirteen copies were made (or record. Feasting,

singing and dancing festivities followed in which the royal

family, including the king, cabinet members and other high

dignitaries participated. The king even composed a poem to

mark the occasion:-

With great toil have I gathered the treasure

and I am happy to spend without measure

in spreading the faith of the Buddha,

gleaned from the land of India,

It was in Tho-tho-ri Nyantsen's reign

that The Secret first here came;

translated in Songtsen Gampo's time,

it has become established in mine.

It is said that the Chinese circles felt extremely piqued over

their defeat; it was a total loss of face for them. They were not


the ones to take their defeat sportingly; their hired assasins

murdered the ichirya in cold blood. The great teacher's tragic

death broke the king's heart who too passed away soon after.


I shall briefly describe 'bhavanakrama'1 or the sequence

of meditation in accordance with the rules ·of conduct

prescribed for an 'adikarmika '2 in the Mahayana Siitras.

Those desirous of attaining ~sarvajiiata'3 speedily should, in

essence, try to practise these three things: 'karuQa', 4

'bodhichitta'5 and 'pratipatti'.6

Knowing that 'karuQa' is the basic root of all dharma

practices of Lord Buddha's teachings, it should be

contemplated or meditated upon at the very outset. As has

been said in Arya-dharma-sangeeti: "So the bodhisattva

mahasattva Arya Avalokitesvara said this to Lord Buddha,

'0 Lord! a bodhisattva should not receive instruction in various

dharmas. If he thoroughly practises a single dharma with

devotion, all other dharmas will be his. Now, what is that single

dharma? It is 'maha-karuQa'. Through 'maha-karur:ta' all other

Buddha dharmas7 are in the palm of a-bodhisattva's hand,

0 Lord! just as where-so-ever a 'chaktavartin' ruler's chakrajewel

moves, there do his mighty armies, so also, 0 Lord!

where-so-ever a bodhisattva's 'mahakaruQa' goes, thither do

all Buddha dharmas follow. 0 Lord! just as all other senses

function so long as life-breath stays so also as long as

mahakarur:ta stays all other dharmas for the bodhisattvas are


It has been said in Aryaksya-mati-nirdesa: "moreover,

0 bhadanta,8 Sharadavati's son! the bodhisattvas' 'mahakarur:ta'

is inexhaustible. And, how is it so? Because, it is 'purvM!gama' ,9

0 bhadanta Sharadavati 's son! just as breathing in and breathing

out is the 'purvagami'10 or precursor of life-breath, so also in

Mahayana, a bodhisattva's 'mahakarur:ta' is a pre-requisite for

the collection of 'punya' or merit". Also, in the Arya-gayasir~

a: "0 Manjusri! What is the beginning of the conduct of

bodhisattvas and what their adh~thana ?11>' "Manjusri replied

'0 Deva-putra! the beginning of a bodhisattva's conduct is

'mahakarur:ta' and its adh~thana the beings."

By it, i.e. 'mahakaruQa', inspired the bodhisattvas, with


little concern for themselves, work assiduously for collecting

merit through long, arduous periods of time with the sole

object of others' well-being. So it has been said in Arya

§raddhabaHidhana: "For the well-being of sattvas through

'mahakarui;Ui', there is no joy which a bodhisattva does not

renounce." In this manner, by engaging himself in the most

difficult situations and by collecting (sambhara)12 merit

quickly, he attains 'sarvajftata'. Therefore, the root of all

Buddha-clharmas is 'mahakarui;Ui'." It was through holding on

to 'mahakaruQ.a' that Lord Buddha, after attaining 'sarvajftata',

continued to work for the whole world. The Lord's

'mahakarui;Ui' is thus the very reason for the Lord not entering

• nirvaQ.a •.

It, i.e. 'ma.ha.karui;Ui', is (born from and) augmented by

constantly reflecting in the mind over the sufferings of

beings. All 'sattvas' are suffering from the three-fold pain13

of dukhas rampant in: the three worlds', 14 - (reflecting) like

this one should fiX one's thought on all beings. The Lord has

described how hell-beings continue to suffer for long periods

from such tortures as fire-burning; so also 'pretas',15 through

suffering from dukha-fire with extreme hunger and thirst, get

emaciated in body and suffer terribly for a hundred years

even; such as these have not had even spittal to lick at. Thus

has, stated the Lord. Beings born even as 'tiryakas'16 are seen

to experience great suffering through mutual anger, killings,

beatings and torturing etc. For example, some have their

bodies made helpless through piercing of ears, beatings and

lashing and they are made to suffer by all and sundry. Their

bodies get exhausted and fatigued by their having to carry

loads unwillingly. Some, living in the forest, may also be

searched out and killed even though they may be innocent.

Some, out of mutual fear, are constantly running about here

and there with minds disturbed.

Their sufferings too seem to be endless. Hell-tortures can

be witnessed even during human existence, because here

also things like the amputation of a thief's limbs, consignment

to the scaffold and the tying down of hands and feet etc. are


nothing but hell-tortures. Those who suffer from penury are

experiencing the dukhas of hunger and thirst like 'pretas'.

Those who as servants have subordinated their thoughts to

others and those who are tortured after being over-powered

by the powerful suffer from the tortures of beating and tying

like 'tiraykas'. So also are immeasureable the dukhas of

beings during journeys and from mutual deceit and beatings,

and from union with and separation from the unloved and the

loved ones respectively. The affluent ones who are

considered to be happy are also liable to lose their property

submerged as they are in the midst of extremely evil eyes,

and owing to the accumulation of many 'kle5as' and 'karmas'

which are causal to the experiencing of hell-tortures, they are

like trees on the edge of a waterfall and are, in the ultimate

sense, unhappy being' in the midst of the causes of dukha.

Even gods do not have mental composure17 so long as

they wander in the realm of 'kama' or desire because their

minds, aflame with the raging frre of desires, are unclean and

mad. What happiness can be there for these so poor in the

joys of the wealth of tranquillity ?18 What happiness can be

there for them, i.e. gods, who are overcome by the constant

fear of a fall (from their god-state) ? Those who, for some

period (of their existence) move about in visible and invisible

states (that is, with form and without form) also, though free

for a while from the tortures of suffering, ultimately suffet-from

the dukha of evil consequences leading to hell-tortures

owing to their not having overcome the 'anuSa.yas'19 from a

'kamavachara'zo conduct. Thus all human ·beings and gods

owing to their subordination to 'karma kle5as',~are suffering

from the dukha of 'samskara-dukha'.22

In this way the whole world is wrapped around by a

wreath of dukha-frre; so seeing and thinking 'just as I do not

like suffering so also don't others', one should generate a

feeling of compassion for all beings. First of all such

'bhavana' or contemplation should be cultivated towards

friends, keeping in mind the aforesaid experiences of dukha

or suffering.


Then, with a mind introvert and staid, one should

contemplate like this: 'there is not a single 'sattva' in this

beginning-less world who has not been related to me a

hundred times'; in this manner contemplate on ordinary

beings. When compassion similar to that for one's friends is

also generated for common beings, one should through

'chitta-samata'Z' or mental equality contemplate on one's

enemies also. When one is as much concemedz4 for one's

enemies as for one's friends one should generate identical

'bhavana' or feeling for all the beings in all the ten directions

one after the other. When the spontaneous desire to remove

the dukha of all the sattvas like one would that of one's own

dear child is generated, it (i.e. the desire) becomes

·~panna'Z5 or staid and is designated as 'mahakaruQ.a' as has

been described in AkSayamati-siitra. This sequence of 'kripa'

bhavana or the contemplation of compassion has been

described by the Lord in the AbhidhaJll!3. siitras etc.

Through the force of the practising of such compassion

and the vow of uplifting all 'sattvas', bodhichitta Z6 is

spontaneously born as importunatel' for 'annuttar-samyakasambodhi'.


As has been said in Arya Da§a-dharma-siitra: "Seeing that

the beings are unprotected, unsheltered and homeless one

should ftx one's mind in 'karul).ii' so that 'anuttara samyakasambodhi'

is generated." Even though 'bodhichitta is

generated in a bodhisattva through another's adherence to

'samyaka 'Z9 still bodhichitta generated in a bodhisattva

through the on-rush of compassion is far superior as stated in

Arya-Tathagata-jiiana-mudra. Samadhi by the Lord. He (the

Lord) has said that such bodhichitta is highly beneficial in the

world even without 'pratipatti' ."'As has been mentioned in

Maitreya-Vimoksa: "0 kulputra! just as a broken 'Vajraratna''

1 superimposes itself on the best of gold ornaments but

still retains its identity and removes all want, similarly, 0

kulputra! the 'Vajra-ratna' of the generation of mind for the

attainment of 'sarvajiiata', 'z even if not accompanied by

'pratipatti', superimposes itself on the gold ornaments of the


'guQas'33 of a 'sravaka'34 and a 'pratyeka-buddha';35 it does

not abandon 'bodhichitta' and also removes the wants of the


He who cannot be fully and in every manner educated in

the 'paramitas'36 should also cultivate bodhichitta, because

by holding on to 'upayaya',37 great benefits accrue. As has

been said in Arya-rajavavadaka-siitra: "0 king! as you are a

great doer and can do a lot, it is not possible to educate

everyone in every way from 'dana-paramita'38 to 'prajiiaparamita'

39 so you should constantly re-capitulate', mentally

visualise and contemplate on your desire for and faith in

prayer and determination or vowtO for 'samyaka sambodhi'

while walking, stopping, sitting, sleeping, waking, eating,

drinking, recollecting all the 'kiisala-miilas'41 or root-merits

of the Buddhas, bodhisattvas, pratyeka-buddhas, aryasravakas,

common people, your own of the past, of the

present, of the future, and commend th~m (i.e. kusala miilas).

After 'anumodana'42 or commending, offer it again to the

Buddhas, bodhisattvas, prat'yeka-buddhas, arya-sravakas

through worship and, after offering, make them common43

for the common people. Then transform into 'anuttarasarriyaka-

sambodhi' all 'kusalas' or merits practised thrice

everyday for the attainment of 'sarva)nata' by sattvas and for

the fulfilment of all Buddha-dharmas. 44 Thus will you, 0

King! having become- ... pratipanna' or realised, rule (your

kingdom). You wilYnot have to abandon governance and you

will also accomplish 'bodhi-sambhara'45 or accumulation of

bodhi." He further added: "as the frui~ of your root-merits of

'samyaka-sambodhi', many times you were born among

gods, many times among men and during all your godly and

human births you will be a ruler." Thus said in detail.

Bodhichitta, which is the essence of 'pratipatti' or

attainment, has been proved to be immensely fruitful. As has

been said in A.rya-veerdatta-pariprichha: "If the 'punya'

which is attained from bodhichitta is handSome, it will fill the

entire 'akasa-dhatu '47 and overflow it." "A person offers as

many 'buddha-ksetras'48 full of gems as the sands of the


Ganga to the Lords, another with folded hands bows his mind

(asking) for bodhi; the latter worship is superior because it

has no end." says Arya-gandavyiiha: "0 Kulputra! bodhichitta

is the seed of all Buddha-dharmas". This in detail. "That

bodhichitta is of two kinds, 'prat;1idhi'-chitta'49 and

'prasthana-chitta' ,'50 that is, the mind that is fixed on the goal

and the mind that is actually treading the road to bodhi.

0 Kulaputre! such beings are rare in the world who fix their

mind in 'anuttara-samyaka-sambodhi'; rarer even are beings

who have ventured on the path of 'anuttara-samyakasambodhi'.

May I become a Buddha for the well-being of the

whole world; -such a preliminary prayer by the practitioner

is called 'prat;lidhi-chitta' or fixing of the mind from the

moment one holds the vow ('samvara')51 and enters

'sambhara'52 or accumulation (of bodhi), it is termed as

'prasthana-chitta' or the journeying mind.

'Samvara' has to be received from other powerful and

learned and 'samvara '-attuned kalyat;1-mitras. 53 In the

absence of a favourable 'grahaka' or recepient (or giver?),

bodhichitta should be generated by visualizing the Buddhas

and the bodhisattvas as did Arya Manjusri by becoming

Ambara-raja.54 A bodhisattva who has so generated

bodhichitta himself practises 'dana' etc. by giving and

engages in 'pratipatti' knowing that if one does not oneself

give away one cannot (exercise) control (over) others. And,

there is no attainment of bodhi without 'pratipatti' or the

knowledge of the eight-fold path.

As has been said in Arya-gayasi~a. "The bodhisattvas

with 'pratipatti' achieve bodhi and not those without

"pratipatti". It has also been stated in Arya-samadhi-raja:

"0 Kumara! you should thus-wise instruct yourself: 'I shall

possess the essence of 'pratipatti.' What for thus ? Because,

0 Kumara! for one possessing the essence of 'pratipatti',

'anuttara-samyaka-sambodhi' is not difficult to attain."

The 'pratipatti' of the bodhisattva along with the

differentiation of 'paramita', 'apramat;1a'55 and 'samgrahavastu

' 56 etc. has been described in detail in sutras like


AkSyamati-ratnamegha-sutra. When a bodhisattva has to learn

even such material subjects as 'silpa' ,57 what then to speak of

transcendental dhyana etc.? Otherwise, how will he fulfil all

his commitments towards sattvas? Hence, in brief, the

'prajiia' and 'upayaya'58 of a bodhisattva are neither only

'prajiia' nor only 'upayaya' alone. As has been said in Arya

Vimala-kirti-nirdesa: "'prajiia' without 'upayaya' and

'upayay~· without 'prajiia' are a bondage for the

bodhisattva." 'Upayaya' (means) with 'prajna' (wisdom) and

'prajiia' with 'upayaya' are described as release. It is also

said in Arya-gayasir~a: "In brief, these are the two paths for a

bodhisattva. Equipped with this twin path, the 'maha-sattva'

bodhisattva will soon be linked with 'anuttara-samyakasambodhi'

or supreme enlightenment. What are these two?

These are 'upayaya' and 'prajna'.

Here, leaving aside the Perfection of Wisdom, all others

such as the perfection of 'dana', 'samgrah-vastu'59 etc.,

'ksetra-parisudhi' ,60 'mahabhoga', 'bahu-parivara-sampata',

61 'sattva-paripaka nirmar:ta '62 - etc. the collection of all

these is called 'kuSala upayaya' of meritorious effort. By thus

differentiating through discrimination proper 'upayaya' and

by properly fulfllling one •·s own and others' objectives, one

does not contract 'samklesas'63 just as when mantra-sanctified

poison is taken (and no harm comes). And, thus has it been

expostulated in the sutra: "Upayaya is the knowledge of

'samgrah',64 'prajiia' the knowledge of differentiation or

discrimination.65" It is said in Arya-sradha-baladhana: "What is

the skill in upayaya? It is the acquisition of all dharmas. What

is 'prajiia'? It is the skill in analysing all dharmas," Both these

- 'prajiia' and 'upayaya' and not 'prajiia' alone or 'upayaya'

alone have always to be practised even by bodhisattvas who

have entered the 'bhumis' ,66 because a bodhisattva's proper

conduct in the 'paramitas' or perfections in all the ten

'bhumis'67 has been taught in Dasabhumika etc.

Of a bodhisattva who roams calmly in the eighth68

'bhumi', 'vyuthana'69 (from it) is opposed by the Buddhas.

This is understandable when the following (injunction) is


studied: "therefore, 0 jina-putra! of a bodhisattva who is

established in this 'achala '70 stage and in the collected force

of his earlier fixation or 'prar;ti-dhana' and in the fundamental

source of dharma/1 Lord Buddha calls a 'ftnis' (upasamhara)72

to his previously acquired knowledge and He thus addresses

him, "well done, well done, 0 Kulputra! This 'paramartha

ksanti'73 is for pursuing all Buddha-dharmas. However,

0 Kulaputra! even so, that intellect which comprises ten

'balas'74 and four qualifications75 and is regarded as Buddha

dharma's wealth is still not yours. So, yoke yourself into a

search for the glory of that Buddha dharma; start effort; do

never leave this doorw.ay of 'ksanti', Even then, 0 Kulaputra!

now that you have attained this 'santi-vimoksa-vihara'76 you

must think of and own up those ignorance-common folks

who, in their restless, disturbed state indulge in varying

'klesas' and whose minds are clogged with many arguments

and counter-arguments. And again, 0 Kulputra! remember

your earlier vows to make available to 'sattvas' a state of no

worry through (the cultivation oO true 'jiiana' .77 This,

0 Kulaputra! is the dharmata78 of all dharmas. Whether or not

Tathagatas79 are born, this state· of 'dharmata' and 'dharmadhatu'

80 stays just as 'sarva-dharma sunyata'81 and 'sarvadharmanu-

plabdhi',82 i.e. the emptiness of all phenomena

and the non-true existence of all phenomena. Not only are

Tathagatas affected by it but even 'sravakas' and 'pratyekabuddhas''

.attain to this 'avikalpa-dharmata'83 or the true

nature of 'dharmata' understanding."

"Again, 0 kulaputra! observe the inmitable84 quality of

our body, of our 'jiiana', of 'buddha~ksetra', of the

accumulation85 of knowledge, of our aura86 and of the

immaculate purity of speech.87 You too should generate

similar accumulation (of kusala in various 'bhiimis '). This sole

effulgence, 0 Kulaputra! is the transcendental88 glow in all

dharmas. 0 Kulaputra! such effulgences of Tathagatas are

infinite,89 eternally90 born, eternally-linked,91 countless,

numberless, un-provable, inimitable, matchless. Generate

accumulation (of 'kusala') in order to understand them. Also,


0 Kulaputra! observe the illimitable expanse,92 the illimitable

beings93 and the analysis of illimitable dharma varieties94 in

all the ten directions. Count them and generate Tathagata 's

'abhinirhara' or kusala-appropriation in the same manner.

0 jina-putra! to a bodhisattva who has attained this kind of

'bhumi', Lord Buddha closes the doors of accumulation

('abhinirhara') which are prominent, numberless and of

unlimited 'jiiana', the abhinirhara' doors95 of knowledge

through which, by means of the divisions of unlimited

knowledge, they generate 'abhinirhara karma' .96 0 jinaputra!

you have to achieve 'adhimukti '97 you have to achieve

'avabodha'98 - fmal release and enlightenment. I commend

it to you, jinaputra! I say it to you. If the bodhisattva is not

made to enter the doors of the accumulation of 'sarvajnatajiiana'

99 he will there (i.e. at that stage) enter 'parinirva1,1a' 100

and the work of all sattvas disintegrate.101" Thus has it been

propounded in detail. Whatever has been propounded in

Arya Vimala-kirti-nirdesa and Gayasir~ is in contradiction of

this, that is, the aforesaid postulate, because it has been dealt

with these in a general sense only.

Whatever has been said in Arya-sarva-dharma-samgrahvaipulya

is also opposite to the above. It is said therein:

"0 Manjusri! the 'avaraQ.a'102 or cover of 'pratiksepa 10~

karma' or negating actions of true dharma is very subtle. He

who generates 'sobhana104 sanjiia' or fair cognition and he

who generates 'asobhana 105 sanjiia' or unbecoming cognition

in the Tathagata-propounded dharma,- both retard1116 the

true dharma. Such 'dharma-pratiksepa' is tantamount to a

rebuttal of Tathagata." So saying at length, he again said:

"0 Maitreya! to a person who properly107 cultivates the Six

Perfections for 'a bodhisattva's sambodhi or enlightenment,

the ignorant ones will say, 'a bodhisattva should learn only

'prajna-paramita,' what with other perfections?' They regard

the other 'upayaya-paramita' 1~m as taboo. How do you regard

this, 0 Ajita?109 Was that KaSinija110 a fool to have given away his

flesh in lieu of that of the pigeon to the preying falcon? 'No,

my Lord,' said: Maitreya.111 The Lord said, '0 Maitr~ya! did


those kusal-mulas or root-merits (meritorious practices)

pertaining to the Six Perfections, which I garnered while

practising the conduct of a bodhisattva do me harm?' Maitreya

replied, 'not at all, my Lord!' The Lord continued, '0 Ajita!

you have practised the proper vows of 'dana-paramita' for

sixty 'kalpas'. 112 If even you practise 'prajfta-paramita' for

sixty 'kalpas,' those ignorant ones will again say, 'a single

'naya'113 or path can lead to bodhi; for example, 'sunyata

naya' or the path of emptiness', this has been said in detail.

It is also mentioned in Vairochanabhi-sambodhi: 'This 'jnana'

f 'sarvajiiata' has 'karut;ta' or compassion as its root, it is the

'hetu' or cause of 'bodhichitta' and is the end114 of 'upayaya'.

Therefore, bodhisattvas should always practise both of


This also proves that the Tathagatas are never installed115

in 'nirvar;ta'. So also the Lord will not stay put in 'nirvat;ta' by

accepting the wealth of the fruit of such grand

enjoyments: 'rupa-kaya',116 'ksetra' 117 and 'parivara' 118

attained through the efforts of 'dana' etc.; nor will these be

their station in 'samsara' owing to the total removal of all their

delusion,119 for 'viparyasa' or delusion alone is the root of

cyclic existence. This 'pratipatti' or realisation born of

'prajfta ... and 'upayaya' will aid the stoppage of the

consequences120 of superimposition121 and contradiction122

and, give birth to the 'madhyama marga' or the Middle Way,

because 'prajfta' prevents the consequences of superimposition

and 'upayaya' prevents the consequences of

contradiction. Hence it is said in Arya-dharma-samgeeti:

'Lord Buddha's attributes123 and their expression124 are

conducive to the creation of 'rupa' - kaya or physical form

and not unto the 'abhisamaya'125 of 'dharma' - kaya'126 or

subtle form. Again the generation127 or creation affected by

the Tathagatas through 'prajfta' and 'upayaya' should be

followed or pursued in preference to other factors."

Again, it has been said: "Those who regard dharma as a

mere boat should give up dharma too; of course, before that

a dharma must also be forsaken." This has been said in order


that belief in opposing or contrary dhannas is abolished and

not tha,t no support be taken for the realisation of the

objective. Hence, it has been said: "dharma should be

accepted but not stuck128 to." It means that it should not be

accepted from the wrong129 end or contrary approach.

Whatever has been said about the material fruits of' dana' etc.

has been said only about the 'dana' practised as aforesaid by

people without 'prajna' and for those who are satisfied with it

as such, in order to encourage them to practise further root

merit, otherwise, it would go contrary to all that has been

earlier said in Arya-vimala-kirti-nirdesa etc. Thus it is

established that 'prajiia' and 'upayaya' should both be

cultivated. So 'dana-paramita' etc. accompanied by 'prajna'

(wisdom), alone and in no other manner attain an identity, a

designation.130 Therefore, one must strive for the generation

of 'prajiia' for sanctifying 'dana' etc. through absorption in

• samadhi'. 131

Now, 'srutamayP32 prajiia' should be generated first.

Through it one grasps the meaning of 'agama'. 133 Then,

through 'chintamayi134 prajiia' one pierces or analyses the

intelligible135 and the dubious136 meanings. Deciding in this

manner one should contemplate on reaP37 and not unreaP38

connotation, otherwise true cognition or ultimate knowledge

will not dawn owing to contemplation on the contrary aspect

and non-refutatio~ of doubt.139 In that case, 'bhavana' will

become meaningleSs as in the case of • tirthikas'. 140 As the

Lord has said in Samadhiraja also: "If one perceives

'nairatmya'141 in all dharmas and, so perceiving, one

practises 'bhavana' or meditation, it will become the • hetu' or

cause of nirv:iQ.a-fruit; other causes are no-wise for 'santi' or


Hence, by means of contemplative wisdom and analysis

through logic and scriptures, one must meditate on the true

nature of 'bhiitas'. That all things, in the ultimate sense, are

non-existent142 has been concluded on the basis of logic and

scriptures. As has been stated in the scripture called, Aryadharma-

samgiti: "non-generation alone is true; other dharmas


like generation tH are not true." It is stated as being in

accordance with 'paramartha' or the ultimate meaning. Nongeneration

(i.e. non-true existence) is true. However, in the

ultimate analysis, there is neither 'utpada' (generation or

being) nor 'anutpada' (non-generation or non-being),

because that or 'paramartha' is beyond all classification or

label. Again, it is said in the same scripture: "0 kulputra! the

attitude or position of the world is dependent on relying144 on

'utpada' (generation or being) and 'nirodha' or cessation'

(non-being). Therefore, the supremely compassionate

Tathagata, in order to abolish the world's areas of fear had

said for practical reasons, that 'there is birth, there is

cessation', and certainly not (for the reason) that, in the

ultimate sense, any dharma is born." It is stated in AryaBuddha-

samgiti also: "What is the query about 'yonisa',145

what 'yoni?'146 It has been said that non-generation is 'yoni'

and the query about it is 'yonisa prichha."147 And, again: all

dharmas are 'chakara 148 mukha' because they are without

beginning without cessation; also, all dharmas are 'abhavamukha'

149 because they are void or empty by nature."

Arya-satya-dvya-vibhaga also states: "the commonality of

'anutpada' or non-generation is the commonality of all

dharmas or phenomena." Prajna-paramita says: "0 Subhuti,

form is devoid of the 'svabhava' (self-existence) of form just

as the bounds of 'vijiiana' (discriminatory cognition) are

devoid of the (true) self-existence or svabhava of 'vijiiana'

owing to the emptiness of all self-nature." Hastika-ksya also

states: "nothing exists whose generation or birth is possible.

Ignorant people look for the possible from the impossible

dharmas." H has been said in Pita-putra-samagama: "all

dharmas during the three times (past, present and future)

have been identical. All dharmas were 'svabhava-rahita' or

without true self-existence in the past and are so in the

present also." Thus should it be examined through 'agama'

(scriptures). It is not possible for others to refute such

conclusions from the scriptures through logic established. So,

examining through logic must be done.


Now about logic, briefly. Is the generation of 'bhavas'

(things, phenomena, etc.) without cause or with cause? It

cannot be without cause because it is occasionally noticeable.

In the absence of any reliance on 'karaQ.a' or cause and

because of the (intervening) interval, why should not things

generate (themselves) always and everywhere as if in

'utpada-kala' or an era of creation? If there is no interval from

the time of non-generation, there will be no generation (of

things) even at the time of generation. Thus there is no

generation without cause. There is no generation with cause

either. There can be no creation or being from an imaginary,

permanent 'hetu' like an 'iswara'150 as believed by tirthikas'

(heretics) because creation is noticeable (as occurring) at

intervals ('kramasa'). Of 'avikala'151 or constant causes the

result cannot be occasional owing to its nirape~sattvata152 or

(independent) constancy. 'Iswara', etc. being self-competent

need not depend on any other (cause) for assistance as he is

permanent. There need be no dependence for the

independent. These 'iSwara' etc. being devoid of omnipotence

are non-existent in essence like the son of a barren woman. A

thing having capacity for 'artha-kriya' 153 is incapable of

generating any act in an occasional sequence as has been

already discussed. There is no simultaneous creation either,

because, by creating everything at the same time, if it can

repeat such creation later on also then, owing to a repetition

of its omnipotent nature, there will arise the possibility of the

creation of things as before. If there is no repetition and the

previous nature is abandoned, the possibility of 'anityata' or

impermanence would arise.

Hence, nothing by the designation of 'nitya' or

permanent exists. The Lord has said, "There is a superimposition154

of 'asata'155 (the non-existent). Belief in such

artificial or non-existent things as 'akasa',156 'nirodh'157 and

nirvaQ.a (space, cessation and release), etc. is superimposition."

Therefore, there is none of the creation or

'utpada' from 'nitya' or permanence; neither is there any

from 'anitya' or impermanence, because owing to the


nothingness of these during the past and the future no

creation is possible from them; otherwise too, it would be a

creation without cause or 'hetu'? As there is no creation in

similar or dissimilar times, there can be no creation from the

present time also. Thus there is no simultaneity of generating

time; otherwise, for causal reasons, it will give rise to

simultaneity of generation or creation also. There is no

generation from variation in time either, because if it takes

place - after a difference in time, there could be generation

in the past also. If, in regarding creation as from

'avyavadhana'158 or non-interval, interval occurs, all 'kSar;tas'

or moments will merge into one 'ksar;ta'159 and, in

consequence, a 'kalpa' will (also) squeeze into 'k5ar;ta' just as

the linking of atoms in all directions will reduce the 'pinda'16o

or mass also to a mere atom. Linkage with a single part makes

a moment alive (savayava). 161 Things are not self-created

either owing to this premise being at par with the non-cause

postulate and the concept of the creator being selfcontradictory.

There is no possibility of generating from both

because of the conjunction of the drawbacks of both


Hence things are without any substantial existence, i.e.

unrelated in the ultimate sense. This is not contrary to the

(teachings of) scriptures even though in an apparent or

illusory sense, creation does appear to exist. So the Lord has

said: 'Things exist only in 'samvrita' and not 'paramartha';

The delusion about the. 'nissvabhava' of things is called the

'samvriti satya'. 162

Such-like logic has also been endorsed by the Lord in

siitras like Salistamba? By itself, from another or from both

and without cause, there can be no creation.

Now, let us examine by another argument. 'Bhavas' are

of two kinds; with form and without form. Of these, pitcher,

etc. which have form are not of one 'svabhava' (entity,

nature) being composed of different atoms. Being situated

fore and aft and when divided into directions like east, etc.

the atom's existence is not established. And, being in (a state


oO conglomeration, they cannot be said to possess different

self -existence or 'svabhava'. There is no other existence of a

thing barring single (existence) and multiple (existence).

Therefore, things with form are 'nissabhava' or non-existent

in the ultimate sense like a form seen in a dream. This has

been stated by the Lord in Arya Lankavatara: "0 mahamati

(the greatly wise); even the horns of a cow, when divided

into atoms, do not exist. Even atoms cannot retain atomic

qualities or characteristics when divided."

Things which are without form are equally non-existent

(in essence), when similarly examined. So also things

outwardly appearing as blue etc. though not truly existent are

only 'vijiiana skandha'163 or an aggregate of cognition,

though without form but appearing as blue. The Lord has

said, "there are no apparent forms; only the mind sees itself

(i.e. its own superimposed reflection).". Therefore, the blue

etc. being seen in different shapes and because of the

received and the recepient being incapable of the same

existing nature as a consequence of the contradiction

between the one and the many, the 'one' cannot be of the

nature of 'many'. When the non-existence of the one is

proved, the existence of the many is also impossible,

because the 'many' is only a conglomeration of the 'one's',

If these manifestations of form etc. are false164 or

insubstantial and are accepted as such, 'vijiiana' itself will

become false because the cognition of the form will be no

different from form itself. 'Vijnana' or cognition has no other

form apart from its own manifest form. Forms etc. do not

shine by themselves but when they are cognised as false,

cognition itself becomes false. That is why the Lord has said:

"all cognition is maya or illusory" .165 So the one and the many

being non-existent are not true in the ultimate sense. The

Lord has said this very thing in Lankavatara: "The nature of

things is like the reflection in a mirror which is devoid of both

singularity and plurality; although it (i.e. the reflection)

appears to be there but, in fact, it is not there." Devoid of

'ekattva' or singularity and 'anyattva' or multiplicity, it is


neither one nor many. 'Buddhi' or intellect does not take

over the nature of existence of that which it examines.

Therefore, these are said to be 'nirabhiHisa' 166 and

'nissvabhava' i.e. unbiased and without essence."

By determining the (true) meaning of things in this

manner through deliberative intellect one must generate

meditative wisdom in order to manifest the true meaning of

things. It has been said in sutras like Arya-ratna-megha: "the

true meaning never becomes manifest or clear merely

through listening (to a lot of expositions). Experience comes

only to such as those who practise 'pratipatti' ,167 or through

comprehension. The cover of darkness lying over the

'samyaka' or true meaning cannot be removed without the

dawn of the clear light of 'jfi.ana'. If meditation is done

profusely the clear knowledge of the hidden meaning is also

born. If 'jfi.ana' comes to those who contemplate on 'asubha'

and 'prithvi-kritsna'168 only, what then to speak of those who

meditate on 'bhutas'!" The success of meditation as the

harbinger of the fruit of true knowledge has been described

in Arya-samadharaja: "I tell you, I put it across to you that as

much as a person may analyse or indulge in logic so much

will his mind be moulded in accordance with the conclusion

he arrives at." This has been said in detail. Hence, he who

wants to· manifest truth or wishes to grasp the essence of

things should practise 'bhavana';- meditation.

Herein, the yogi should first cultivate 'samatha'~69 or calm

in order to stabilise the mind. Being 'chanchala' or flippant

like water, the mind cannot become poised without the basis

of 'samatha'. Nor can a person whose mind is not

'samahita'170 or tranquil can understand the truth of thirigs

('yatha bhutama'), the essence. The Lord said, "one with a

tranquil mind understands the 'yatha-bhuta'. Tranquillity

comes quickly to a person indifferent towards the desire for

gain etc. and to one who is of correct disposition, is of the

nature of dukha-awareness171 etc. and is on the path of

'veerya'172 or effort. Hence 'dana' etc. have been mentioned

repeatedly in Arya-sandhi-nirmochana etc.


Thus staying in 'samatha' collections like 'sila'173 etc.,

bowing to all Buddhas and bodhisattvas at a spot convenient

to the mind after indicating 'papa'174 and commending

'punya',175 keeping in view 'mahakaruQa' which aims at the

welfare of the entire world, with body erect (but at ease),

sitting on a congenial seat (or in the comfortable posture of

'sukhasana')176 assuming the lotus pose, one should practise

'samadhi' or meditational repose.

First of all mind should be briefly fiXed on all aspects of

the object of contemplation so that it becomes a solid or

massed object (to reflect on). In brief, an object is of two

kinds: with form and without form. In order to ward off the

defect of deviation177 of an adikarmika' or novice initiate, it is

proper to have a small or brief 'alambana'178 only. When one

has mastered 'manaskara' or mental actualisation one can

take to a larger or detailed 'alambana' by refining or

rectifying the process through the differentiations of

'skandha' and 'dhatu' etc. As has been said in Arya-samadhinirmochana

etc.: "the yogis have many kinds of 'alambanas'

like the eighteen types of 'sunyata' .179

Here also, for the good of sentient beings, the Lord has

spoken about 'vastubheda'180 in 'abhidharma'181 etc. in

accordance with the differences between the formless ( vastu

or thing) and the corporeal (things) in brief, medium and

detailed manners. For the removal of superimpositions and

falsities, the thing or the object should be regarded as a mere

mass or collection of 'skandha' and 'dhatu'. Thus being

assured of the collection with respect to all things, the mind

should again and again be brought around to concentrate on

that (massed aspect of things).

In case the mind, in between, deviates and gets outwardprone

due to 'raga' or attachment, one must silence such

aberration by reflecting on the 'asubha' or unwholesome

(responsible for deviation) and stabilise the mind again and

again. The sequence of reflection on 'asubha' has not been

mentioned here in detail for fear of dilation. When the mind

appears to be disinterested, one should reflect on the


advantages of meditation and concentrate on one's interest

on it. Whenever faults of deviation or distraction appear, one

must quieten down one's disinterestedness. When owing to

having been overcome by 'styana'182 and 'middha',I85 one's

mind does not get clearly absorbed in holding on to the prop

or 'alambana', then either through cont~mplation ('bhavana ')

on a luminous cognition ('aloks samjiia') or through a mental

visualisation of a supremely joyous object like Buddha etc.

and by so calming down 'laya' or mental lethargy, one should

again firmly hold on to the 'alambana'.

When the mind looks naughty in between through some

remembrance of a previous joy or enjoyment one should

reflect on the 'samvega'184 of 'anityata~ or transitoriness and

calm down its naughtiness. Then, one must try to persuade

the mind towards that very prop (alambana) without

'abhisamskara'185 or variation.

When the mind, shorn of both lethargy and insolence

appears to be properly engaged of its own volition, 186 then,

through suspension of 'abhoga'187 or effort, detachment

should be practised. When 'satyabhoga'188 or true effort

(after pacifying 'laxity etc.) is practised in a state of 'samapravritti'

189 or balance, 'vik5epa'190 or mental confusion (i.e.

complicated samadhi-state) occurs, (i.e. the mind is


When the mind, without 'abhisamskara' or variation and of

its own volition, becomes engaged in that very 'alambana' one

should consider 'samatha' or abiding calm as achieved. The

nature of 'samatha' is the one-pointedness of the mind,

a characteristic common to all types of tranquillity, its

'alambana' is not fixed, though~ The Lord has spoken ofthis

path in Arya-prajiiaparamita etc. also. He says, "(the sekeer)

ftxes ('sthapita') his mind there, establishes ('samsthapita') it,

pinpoints ('avasthapita') it, houses ('upasthapita') it, controls

('damana') it, calms ('santa') it, stills ('vyupasanta') it,

concentrates (' ekagra ') and rests in meditative equipose

('Samahita')". ThUs described in nine nomenclatures.

Now, here 'sthapayati' means 'binds the mind to the


'alambana': 'samsthapayati' means 'to engage the mind to that

prop or 'alambana' systematically; 'avasthapayati' means 'on

discovering confusion, removes it; 'upa-sthapayati means

'again ftxes the mind to that very 'alambana' after removing

'vikSepa'; 'damayati' means 'generates 'rati' or desire for the

prop; 'sainayati' means 'subdues 'a-rati' or non-desire (for

alambana) after observing the faults of 'vik5epa' (deviation)';

'vyupasamayati' means, 'calms down indolence and donothing-

ness that have crept in', 'ekoti-karoti' means 'tries to

enter the 'alambana' without 'abhisamskara'; 'samadadhati'

means 'practises 'upekSa' after attaining tranquillity of mind or

'chitta-samata', that is, practises withdrawal from the world or

'samanvakaraQ.a' .191 These are the meanings (of the above

terms) as given by Arya Maitreya and by former acharyas.

Briefly speaking, all samadhis have six faults: 192 sloth,l9~

forsaking the 'alambana'1?4 mentallethargy,195 insolence,196

non-effort197 and effort.198 To overcome or wipe out these

'do~as' one must meditate on the eight eraser-samskaras,199

which are faith, 200 desire to act, 201 industriousness, 202

alacrity,203 non-forgetfulness,204 alertness,Z05 mental

refinement206 and equanimity.207 Of these, the first four are

an antidote to 'kausidya' or sloth. Thus, through 'sraddha' or

faith, accompanied by indications of the generation of correct

knowledge208 of the efficacy of samadhi, the yogi's will to

practise it is born; from will or desire ('abhil~) one should

commence the cultivation of 'veerya' or effort. Through

effort one attains bodily and mental activity. Activeness of

body and mind removes slothfulness. Therefore, 'sraddha'

etc. should be contemplated upon for the sake of warding off

'kausidya' or sloth etc. 'Smriti' or non-forgetfulness is the

opposite of the giving up of 'alambana'. 'Samprajfiaya' or

awareness is the opposite of mental lethargy and insolence,

because it clearly exposes the reality of both. If mental

lethargy and insolence are not subdued, the fault of

'anabhoga' 2'~J accurs. As opposite to it, 'chetana' or mental

alertness should be contemplated upon. When mental sloth

and insolence are romoved and the mind becomes calm, the


fault of 'abhoga'210 accurs. To oppose it, one must

contemplate on 'upekSa' or detachment.

Samadhi, comprising these eight eraser samskaras, is

most efficacious. It generates qualities like 'riddhi'211 etc.

Hence it is said in siitra: "a person equipped with the eight

eraser samskaras contemplates on the state of 'riddhi'. Such

concentration of the mind accompanied by more and more of

activity212 with the association of such qualities or 'guQaS' as

'alambana' attains the designation of 'dhyana', 'aru pisamapatti'

213 and 'vimok5a'.214

In this manner when 'upeksa' or detachment is

accompanied by 'vedana '215 or awareness and becomes

rational and meaningful it is called 'anagamya',216 inaccessible

or un-deftnable, because 'chitta' or mind is the 'prayoga' or

subject of the First Dhyana.217 To be free from 'kama tri~na·

(hankering after desires) and 'papa-dharma' (evil proclivities

of the mind), to keep linked with logic, reflectiveness, joy,

happiness and inner bliss is designated as First Dhyana. Also,

the first dhyana being devoid of 'vitarka' is called

'dhyanantara' or mid-dhyana. When it is without 'vichara' or

reflection and 'vitarka' or reason and becomes free from the

desire of staying in the First Dhyana stage, is accompanied by

the bliss of the joy of devotion and of spirituality, it is called

Second Dhyana. When it becomes free from the desire of

staying in the Second Dhyana stage and accompanied by joy,

detachment, recollectedness and awareness- 'sukha'

'upeksa', 'smriti' and 'samprajanya'- it is called Third

Dhyana. When it is free from the desire of staying in the Third

Dhyana stage and is accompanied by non-dukha, non-sukha

feelings, 'upeksa and 'smriti', it is called Fourth Dhyana.

Thus, the mind should be linked with ·'arupya smapatti' or

formless meditation and dominant218 'ayatanas'219 or

entrances of release etc. in accordance with the distinctions

of 'alambana' and 'akara'220 or form.

So, after stabilizing the mind in the 'alambana', one

should analyse with (discriminating) wisdom so that, through

the bliss of the dawn of the light of 'jiiana', the seed of the


delusion is totally eradicated; otherwise, as in the case if

'tirthikas', there can be no removal of klesas merely through

'samadhi'. As has been said in Samadhiraja-siitra: "bhavana'

may be practised in such samadhi but it will-not spell the loss

of 'atma-samjfta'221 or body-consciousness. It will again

agitate the 'klesas' as during 'undreka222 samadhi' bhavana or

over-mentalisation in meditational process."

'Prajna-bhavana-krama' or the sequence of meditation on

'prajfta has been briefly indicated in Arya Lankavatara: "on

taking to the 'chitta-matra'223 (path), one should not dwell in

'bahyartha' or only apparent meaning (of phenomenon); by

stabilizing oneself on the 'alambana' of 'tathata'224 one should

go beyond the bounds of 'mind only'. After crossing over the

mind only path one should go beyond the 'nirabhasa'.225"

The yogi who stays in the 'nirabhasa' or a state 'of nonfallacious

appearances' will see 'mahayana'. Purified by

'praQ.idhana' or vows, the state of satiety is stilled. One

cannot experience the noble non-souP26 soul 'jftana' in a

state of 'nirabhasa'.

This is what the aforesaid means: at ftrst the yogi should

reflect over those external meanings which have been

superimposed by others over dharmas with form, that is,

whether they are different from cognition ('vijftana ') or that

they are vijftana itself appearing as such as if in the dream

state. Then, he should consider them with respect to their

atoms in accordance with 'vijnana; observing the atoms in

their parts, the yogi will not find those superimposed

meanings. Not fmding them there, he will so conclude that all

this is mind only and that there is no external meaning or

substance at all. Therefore, it has been said: "one should not

imagine external meanings on ascending the mind-only

path". That is, one must give up 'vikalpas' or superimposed

nomenclatures of dharmas with form. To reflect on those

'bhavas' or phenomena with apparent or super-imposed

meanings leads to the disappearance of those meanings.

Having thus reflected over dharmas with form, one

should analyse dharmas without form. One who remains only


a 'chitta-matrin' cannot become a 'grahaka' or receiver in the

absence of that which could be the 'grahya' or the receivable

as the recepient has always to depend on an object which is

to be received. Therefore, it must be concluded that the mind

is devoid of the functions of the both the 'grahya' and the

'grahaka'; it is 'advya' or non-dual. 'Advya' is defined as

"sticking on to the prop of 'tathata ', one must go lxfyond the

'chittmatra' stage too". The attitude of the 'receiver' should

be over-stepped. It means that the non-cognisance of duality

should be based on the knowledge of duality.

In this manner, after crossing over the 'chitta-matra'

stage, one should also go beyond the non-dual cognition

stage, because there is no generation of 'bhavas' either by

themselves or through another agent and the 'grahya' and the

grahaka' are illusionary, non-existent. Because they are

dissimilarv from what they appear, their truth or reality is

also not opposite. In 'advya jftana'228 or non-dual comprehension

also, the feeling of existence in substance should be

abandoned which means that one should stay in the

'nirabhasa jftana' or non-apparent knowledge of 'advya' or

non-duality. By so doing, the mind gets stabilized in the

realisation of the 'nissvabhavata' of all dharmas. Such a

person, owing to his access to the 'paramatattva' or the

ultimate essence (of things), enters 'nirvikalpa samadhi' or

immaculate absorption.

When the yogi is established in the 'nirabhasa joana of the

non-dual cognition he also gets established in the

'paramtattva'229 - the ultimate or supreme essence (reality);

he sees 'mahayana'. Realising the 'paramatattva' is called

Mahayana. His 'paramtattva darsana' or experiencing the

ultimate reality is this that, analysing all dharmas or phenomena

with the eye of 'prajna', he sees the truth in the light

of 'samyaka jftana'230 or ultimate knowledge. So it is said in

the sutra: "what is 'parmartha darsanama' or seeing the

supreme or ultimate truth of things? (it is) the non-seeing of

all dharmas." Herein is indicated such type of 'non-seeing'

(as described above) and not the non-seeing (blindness) or


ignorance of those who, with eyes shut like the born blind,

see nothing owing to the bafflement231 of 'pratyayas' and

non-mentalisation of phenomena.

The yogi will remain in bondage, like a person who has

arisen from 'asaiijyi' samapatti1,232 owing to the non-removal

of 'vasana' or desire for fixation in things born of contrariety

('viparyasa'), because in 'bhavas' themselves are created the

basic fixations of the 'klesa' mass or mental defilements of

'riiga'233 (attachment, addiction) etc.: It has been said in Aryasatya-

dvaya-nirdesa etc.: "the root of 'raga' etc. is fixation in

'bhavas' ," What has been said in Avikalpa-pravesa-dharani

etc. (about the yogi 'stopping through non-mentalisation such

things as the objects of form etc. refers to that 'anupalabdhi'

(absence of substantial existence) which comes only through

an examination with 'prajiia' and the non-mentalisation of

that alone; it does not merely refer to the absence of

mentalisation. Fixation in 'riipa' or form etc., which has been

there from time immemorial, cannot be eradicated, like

'asanjiii samapatti' etc. merely by abandoning mentalisation."

It is not possible to remove the 'manasikara' or

mentalisation generated by previous 'abhinive5a' or fixations in

'riipa' (form) etc. without the removal of doubts just as there

can be no extinction of the fact of burning unless fire is

removed. It is not possible to take out these false 'vikalpas'

or contrary alternatives of form etc. from the mind as though

plucking out a thorn with our own hands. How, then (to do it)?

(It is done) by removing the seeds of doubt. The yogi, after

examining through the eyes of 'prajiia' these seeds of doubt

and their formerly acquired form etc. and such as those

whose non-acquiredness is experienced in the moment of

acquirement, can of course remove them like the cognition of

the serpent in the rope and in no other manner. Similarly,

when the seed of doubt is removed, one can abandon the

mentalisation of the objects of form etc. also and in no other

manner. Were it not so then, in the absence of the glow of

samadhi and not seen even by the eye of wisdom, the yogi's

doubt about the existence of form etc. is not removed like


that of a person in a blind well (of ignorance) feeling doubts

about the pots etc. lying in the house. When such doubt is not

removed, he will become a person whose 'timir-do~'234 or

clouded eyesight is not removed and who remains

susceptible to fixation in false insubstantial forms, which

cannot be castigated by anyone. Therefore, by clasping the

mind with the hand of 'samadhi' and with the help of the very

subtle weapon of 'prajna' one should eradicate the seeds of

the disease of false 'vikalpas' or alternatives present in the

mind; just as uprooted-trees do not again take root in the earth

so also will false 'vikalpas' be not born in the mind. Hence, in

order to remove the 'avarar:ta' or the overlying crust of false

appearances the Lord has pointed out the 'yuganadha235 -

vahi-marga (two-fold single path) of 'samatha' (equipoise)

and 'vipasyana' (insight), because "these two are the cause

of absolute knowledge ('avikalpa-jftana')." As is said in the

sutra: "Samadhi is attained through staying in 'Sila'; through

samadhi comes 'prajfta bhavana or contemplation on

wisdom; through 'prajfta' comes absolute knowledge; a

person with absolute knowledge attains the wealth of 'Sila'."

In this manner, when the mind lias been stabilized in the

'alambana' through equipoise ('samatha'), the glow of

ultimate 'jftana' is born after deliberation through 'prajfta'.

When this glow shines, the cover (avaraQ.a) is lifted like the

disappearance of darkness. Therefore, both these 'samatha'

ami prajfta', like the eye and the light, are mutually beneficial

in the generation of right knowledge. There is no

contradiction between the two as between light and darkness

inspite of the difference in their '' or characteristics.

'Samadhi' is not of the nature of darkness. What is it, then? It

is of the nature of the concentration of mind. "Being in

equipoise, it knows the reality (of things)." In accordance

with this assertion, it i.e. 'samadhi' gets totally identified with

'prajfta'; it is not contradictory to it. When a 'samahita' or a

person of staid mind examines with his 'prajfta' there will be

no acquirement236 of all dharmas. That, in itself, is the

supreme non-acquirement237 or perception. Such a


staidness238 indicating stage of the yogi is (a state oO

'anabhoga'239 or total-satiety, because nothing beyond it

remains to be experienced. 'Santa' or tranquil (state) is the

cessation of all such contrary frauds2411 as those of 'bhava'241

or is-ness and 'abhava'242 or is-not-ness.

Thus, when the yogi does not find any inherent existence

of things after examining through 'prajiia' (wisdom), he

experiences no contrariety of 'bhavas' nor does he

experience the 'vikalpa' of 'abhava'. If is-ness or 'bhava' is

noticed anywhere, its stoppage or cessation will produce an

alternative (vikalpa'). However, if by examining through

'prajna' the yogi discovers no is-ness of things in the three243

times, how can there be any opposing alternative of the same

as is-not-ness or 'abhava'? So, other 'vikalpas' also will not

touch him owing to the permeableness244 of 'vikalpas' of

'bhava' and 'abhava'. There can be no 'vyapaka'245 or a

permeable246 entity. So, this is the supreme immaculate yoga.

For a yogi stabilized in that (i.e. immaculate yoga) all

contradictions or alternatives having been eradicated, his

'jiieyavarat)a'247 or cover of cognition and 'klesavarat)a'248 or

cover of mental defilement are totally destroyed. It has been

said in Arya satya-dvya nirdesa etc. also that the root of

'klesavarat)a' is the superimposition of 'bhava' etc. on

uncreated, non-existent things or phenomena.

Through this yoga practice by removing all contrarities of

'is-ness', all contradictions of 'is-ness' etc., the ignorancenatured

roots of 'klesavarat)as' are totally destroyed. As has

been stated in Arya satya-dvaya nirdesa: "0 Manjusri! how

can 'klesa' or mental defilement be suppr~ssed?" How are

'klesas' discovered?' Manjusri replied, 'in the ultimate sense,

there is a false superimposition (on things) through

'samvrita'l49 or the apparent over totally unborn, uncreated

and non-existent dharmas. This false superimposition gives

rise to 'samkalpa' and 'vikalpa '2511 premise and counterpremise;

'sankalpa' and 'vikalpa' give rise to 'ayonisa

mansikara'251 or un-meditational mentalisation, which gives

rise to 'atma-samaropa' or the superimposition of a self (or


entity on phenomena); 'atma-samaropa' gives rise to 'dri1jitiparyuthhana

'252 or sight distraction; this sight-distraction

generates 'klesas. 0 devaputra! in the ultimate sense, he

alone is un-superimposed who realises all dharmas to be

totally unborn, uncreated. He who, in the ultimate sense, is

un-superimposed is without 'vikalpa'. He who is free from

'vikalpa' is meditationally balanced. He who is meditationally

balanced can never have self-superimposition. He

who is free from the superimposition of a self does not suffer

from 'dhyana pariyuthhana'. In the ultimate sense, 'dristiparyuthhana'

or sight-distraction does not take place till one

sees 'nirvat)a'. So his 'klesa' must be seen as 'vineeta' or

highly subdued, staid as he is in the 'anutpada' or uncreated

realm. Such a one is called 'klesa-vinaya' or one with

subdued defilements. 0 devaputra! when he, through his

'nirabhasa jnaiia' or knowledge bereft of (fallacious)

appearances (kno'Vledge of emptiness), realises to be totally

void, non-existent and uncreated in the ultimate sense, he,

0 devaputra! understands the 'klesas'. The rogue who

knows the class of the serpent will also cure the venom of

the serpent. Similarly, 0 devaputra! he who thoroughly

understands the 'gotra' or class of 'klesas', his klesas are

removed, become 'santa' (quiet)." Devaputra said,

"0 Manjusri! What is the 'gotra' of 'klesas'?" Manjusri

replied, "0 devaputra! all superimpositions on dharmas,

which are totally unborn, uncreated and non-existent in the

ultimate sense are the 'gotras' (classes, castes) of 'klesas'."

Thus stated at length.

When 'bhavas' etc. are overthrown, and because

'viparyasa'253 or. contrariety is all-pervasive, with this overthrow

all contrary 'avart)as' are also overthrown and the

cognitive cover will also be adequately removed because

'avaft:las' are of the quality of contrariety. With removal of the

cognitive cover and impediment removed the glow of 'jiiana'

spreads in front of the yogi like a ray of the sun spreading

speedily all over a cloudless sky. Thus, 'vijiiana' 254

(consciousness, cognitive knowledge) is, by nature,


effulgent but that effulgence does not shine forth owing to

impediments. Un-hindered, why will not that 'subtle

(achintya) ', 255 with its especial capacity regained, not

illumine everything as such? Therefore, 'sarvajiiata' is

attained by obtaining the true knowledge of things in both

the apparent (' samvrita ') and the ultimate (' paramartha ')

sense. So, this is the supreme path for the removal of

'avan:ms' and the attainment of 'sarvajfiata'.

In the 'sravaka' path etc., owing to the non-eradication of

all the contrarities ('viparyasa'), the two '' are not

properly removed. As has been said in Arya-Lanka-vatara

etc.: "other people get to know 'nirvaQ.a' by observing all

dharmas as subject to 'hetu' or cause; however, 0 mahamati!

they cannot attain emancipation ('moksa'), because they do

not realise the non-self nature of dharmas. 0 mahamati

(greatly wise)! a person in sravaka-yana possessing an

intellect which stays in the experience of correct256 'satyas'

attains release257 even in non-release. 258 0 mahamati!

here one must try to avert259 faulty vision260 or outlook

(i.e. adherence to wrong dQctrine)." As there is no 'moksa'

through other vehicles, the Lord has here said, "there is only

one vehicle."

P~ths like 'sravaka-yana' etc. have been propounded

only by the ignorant for the instruction of the ignorant, such

(things) as that 'skandhas'261 etc. are only dharmas and there

is no 'self' (atma). So thinking, a 'sravaka' enters 'pudgala

nairatmya', 262 the non-self concept of a thing; that the

threefold263 'dhatu'-division of the world is only 'vijiiapti'264

(mental phenomena); so thinking, he enters the 'nairatmya'

of a vijiianavadin, 265 which deals only with 'bahyartha' or

apparent phenomena. Now, by his entering the 'nairatmya'

or non-self aspect of non-dual (advya) knowledge in the

aforesaid manner, he enters the 'paramatattva' or the

supreme truth of things. Entering the supreme truth is not

merely entering mental cognition ('vijiiapti'). It has been

said in Arya-lokottara-parva. "Moreover, 0 jinaputra!

'traidhatuka' manifests in the 'chitta-matra' and that mind


also appears in the shape of 'ananta-madhyataya' (without an

end, without a middle). The (two) 'antas'266 (ends) being of

the quality of generation267 and dissolution and the

'madhya'(middle) being devoid of the quality of staying, the

mind is 'ananta-madhya', i.e. without ends, without middle".

Therefore, to enter the non-dual 'jiiana' is to enter the

'tattva,' the reality of things."

If it is asked: "how does a yogi's state get so refmed?", the

answer is: 'it is refmed by 'praQ.idhana' or the vow to tread

the road to the goal'. The vow that the bodhisattvas have

taken to serve all sentient beings through 'mahakaruQ.3', by

practising more and more of such 'kusalas' as 'dana' etc., on

the strength of that vow, the yogi's state will become refmed.

So long as the dependence on all beings is not eradicated

even after the realisation of the 'nissvabhavata' of all

dharmas, he continues to be in 'samsara' till the end, being

engrossed with the faults of the cyclic round (' samsara ').

How is this supreme knowledge full of total satiety and

tranquillity? The reason for its being so is stated below: (the

yogi) sees the noble 'niratma jnana' through, 'nirabhasa' or a

non-fallacious view of things.' Therefore, the noble non-dual

'jnana', which is acceptable to the non-dualists in the ultimate

sense, is also non-self (nairatmya'). The yogi sees the

'nissvabhava' through his knowledge of the 'advya

nirabhasa' or non-dual, non-fallacious meditation experience.

Afterwards, it becomes total satiety ('anabhoga')

because nothing else remains to be seen and it is called

'santa' (still, calm) because of the absence of any 'vikalpa' or


Now, here it may be asked: ''What yogi is such as 'sees'?"

(The answer is): in the 'paramartha' or ultimate sense no self

('atma') etc. has an independent entity nor does the yogi

'see' an}'thing. However, in the 'samvrita' or apparent sense,

just as, with the mere generation of the knowledge of the

form of things with form, it is only cognition ( vijnana) which

appears in these different forms like one seeing a Deva-datta

or a Yajiia-datta through rognition (of their forms); there is no


such thing as a self. So also here the yogi sees the generation

of 'advya nir.ibhasa jfi.ana' or the non-dual non-fallacious

knowledge. Thus said: "In spite of all dharmas being nonexistent

in the ultimate sense, awareness of 'samvriti' is not

undesirable whether it is a common person or a yogi". As has

been stated at length in 'Aryasatya-dvaya nirde5a': it is, in the

ultimate sense, totally non-existent but even so it seeks the

way through 'samvriti', apparent truth.

What about the order of 'sravakas', 'pratyeka-buddhas',

'bodhisattvas', Buddhas and the common people, then? That

which has no 'karai)a' (cause) in 'samvriti' (the apparent) is

unborn even in 'samvriti' as in the case of the horns of a hare

etc. That which has a cause must be born even though it may

not be true in the ultimate sense just as an illusion, a

reflection, an echo. Owing to their being un-analysable,

illusion etc. inspite of their dep~ndent origination268 in the

'samvriti', are not truly existent in the ultimate sense.

Therefore, the entire 'jagata'269 has been designated as

'maya' or illusion. just as the illusion of birth takes place in

the case of sentient beings because of the illusion of 'klesas'

and 'karma', so also 'jfi.ana maya'270 or the illusion of

knowledge envelops the yogis because of the illusion of the

aCCUJilulation of 'punya' (virtue) and 'jfi.ana' (knowledge). As

has been said in Arya-prajfi.a-paramita "0 Subhuti! thus all

dharmas are 'nirmaQa'(conjectured creation). Some are

created by 'sravakas', some by 'pratyeka-buddhas', some by

'kle5as' and some by 'karmas'. In this manner, 0 Subhuti! all

dharmas are 'nirmita', 271 of conjectured existence." The

difference between the yogis and the common people is that

the former do not regard that illusion to be true, because like

the illusion-maker magician they know all illusions as such;

that's why they are called yogis. Those who are foolish like

the common people take that frivolous272 play to be the truth

and, because of their belief in the contrary, are called

ignorant. It has been said in Arya-dharma-sangiti: "just as a

magician tries to seek release from (the idea oO creation (of

his illusion), he does not feel any attachment (for his maya42


creation), because he knows it (to be illusory) from the very

beginning. The person who has attained true enlightenment,

273 knowing 'tri-bhava'274 to be only illusory, puts on a

guise for the world while already aware of the reality of the

world ('jagata')."

The 'tattva' (of all dharmas) should be meditated upon in

this sequence.

When mental lethargy ('laya') and excitement ('audhatya')

arise during meditation, they should be quietened down as

before. The two-fold single path of '5amatha' and 'vipa§yana'

tranquillity and perceptive insight - is completed when

'jiiana', shorn of 'laya' and 'audhatya', enters 'anabhisamskara'

275 (immaculate) state with the 'alambana' of the

'nissvabhavata of all dharmas. And, as long as possible, the

practitioner should stay in the 'adhimukti bhiimi'276 through

the force of 'adhimukti'277 and 'sarar:ta-gama',- faith and

devotion. After this, without giving up the lotus posture, the

practitioner may, if desired, contemplate as under in the

'vyuthhana' or rising-up state: 'If all these dharmas are

'nissvabhava' or insubstantial in the ultimate sense, do they

still exist in the 'samvriti' (apparent) aspect?' It has been said

in Arya-ratna-megha: how does a bodhisattva become

proficient in 'nairatmya' (non-self doctrine)? 0 Kulaputra! the

bodhisattva examines 'riipa' (form) with right wisdom,

examines 'vedana'278 (feeling), 'sanjiia'279 (cognition) and

'samskara '280 and observing these fonns, he does not notice

any generation of form, does not find cessation ('nirodha'),281

does not find 'samudaya'282 (aggregation). This is due to the

establish-ment of his 'prajna' or wisdom in 'paramartha' and

not because of his natural wont." This has been stated in

detail. However, the ignorant persons, by attributing a false

substantiality to non-existent things, continue to wander in

cyclic rounds, experiencing countless dukhas. Keeping this

in mind and addressing 'mahakaruJ)a' one must reflect:

'I shall do that by which I may attain the true knowledge of all

dharmas so that I could instruct these (ignorant) persons in

'dharmata' (the true nature of dharmas, which is emptiness)'.


After offering worship and prayers to all the Buddhas and

bodhisattvas, one should undertake the great vow ('mahapraQ.

idhana') of noble, virtuous conduct ('bhadracharya').283

Then he should engage himself in the collection of all such

accumulations of merit and 'jiiana' like 'dana' etc. whose

core is emptiness and compassion, 'sunyata' and 'karuQ.a.' As

, has been said in Arya-dharma-samgiti: "the bodhisattva who

sees 'yatha-bhutas' (the reality of things), i.e. emptiness,284

feels great compassion ('mahakaruQ.a') towards beings and

he says to himself, 'I must make all beings experience the joy

of that samadhi which makes one realise the true state of all

phenomena." Goaded by this great compassion, he attains

transcendental, true enlightenment ('anuttara samyaka

sambodhi '), 285 after fulfilling the three-fold286 teachings:

'adhiSila,' 'adhichitta' and 'adhiprajna' teachings: on conduct,

teachings on samadhi.and teachings on wisdom.

Such is the two-fold-single path of bodhisattvas comprising

'prajna' and 'upayaya', which does not sever 'samvriti' or its

prop of the apparent even after realising 'paramartha'. The

'mahakaruQ.a' of one who does not cut off 'sap1vriti' gets

engaged in action for beings by becoming 'purva-gamini'287

(forward leading) without contradictions or contrarities. It has

been said in A.rya-ratna-megha: "how does a bodhisattva

become proficient in Mahayana? Well, in Mahayana, the

bodhisattva instructs himself in all teachings but does not take to

the path of instruction. He does not take to even that what he

learns; he does not take to even that which is taught. He

does not fall into 'uchheda-dri~ti' (disturbed view) with

respect to 'hetu'21111 (cause), 'pratyaya'2B'J (factor) and 'nidana'290

Oinks of causation)." It is said in A.rya-dharma-samgiti: ''What is

the 'pratipatti' (perception, attainment) of a bodhisattva? Now,

whatever way the bodhisattvas act through body, speech and

mind, they do so with reference to the 'sattvas,' because

'mahakaruQ.a' leads ('purvangama')291 and they are under the

command of 'maha-karuna' born of the aim of giving joy to all

beings." A person with such a beneficial aim thinks: "I have to

realise that 'pratipatti' which is beneficial to and confers joy on


all 'sattvas'." He possesses the perception of looking at

'skandhas' as illusion but does not wish to give up 'skandhas'.

He possesses the perception of looking at 'dhatus' as serpent

venom but does not wish to give up 'dhatus'. He possesses the

perception of looking at 'ayatanas '292 as empty entities but does

not wish to give up 'ayatanas. He has the perception of looking

at forms as the manes of foam but does not give up the

realisation or 'sadhana' ('vithapana') of Tathagata's 'riipakaya.

295 He possesses the 'pratipatti' of looking at 'vedana' as a

bubble but it is not the non-emergence of the joy accruing from

meditational absorption ('samapatti') of Tathagata 's 'dhyana'

and 'samadhi.' He has the 'pratipatti' of looking at 'samjiia'294

(consciousness of an object) as a mirage but not as the nonperception

of the emergence of Tathagata 's 'jiiana'. He

possesses the 'pratipatti' of looking at 'samskaras' as a plantain

but not the non-perception of the refinement of Buddhadharma.

He has the realisation of looking at 'vijiiana' as 'maya'

but not the non-perception of the fulfilment ('~patti') of karma

through body, speech and mind as its fore-runners." Thus said in

detail. The yogi should thus understand from these detailed

siitras the 'pratipatti' comprising 'upayaya' (means) and 'prajiia'


In this (process), if the practice of 'upayaya' is not possible

during the state of transcendental 'prajiia', but, at the time of

practising 'upayaya', the bodhisattva experiments with

transcendental 'jiiana' like a magician unaffected from the

true perception (of his work); and after the experiment, he

attains wisdom in the form of faith in and knowledge of the

'yathabhuta' (real) aspect of things. This is the very single

way (Marga), comprising the duo of 'prajiia' and 'upayaya'.

The two-fold single path of 'prajiia' and 'upayaya' as

indicated in Arya-akSayamati which says that the (akSaya)295

state of samadhi, making one aware of these two (i.e. prajiia

and upayaya), should be followed. If the bodhisattva

meditates in this manner through the practice of such 'prajiia

and upayaya', for long, he will attain the twelve special

states. 296 These very states, with the consolidation of 'guJ:la5'


further and furth~r, establish 'bhiimis'297 from 'adhimukticharya

bhumi' to 'Buddha-bhiimi' .298

So long as a person does not realise the non-self aspect of

all dharmas he is in the 'dric;lhtara adhimukti'299 stage only.

When, impregnable to 'mara'300 etc., the reality ('tattva') is

contemplated upon with the force of 'adhimukti' (devotion,

faith) then, through the means of the ftrm 'adhimukti' stage

('bhumi'), the conduct ('charya') for 'adhimukti' is

.established. Arya-ratna-megha describes how, even as a

common person, a bodhisattva can become equipped in this

'bhumi' with several qualities like 'samadhi', 'dharal).i', 301

'vimoksa', 302 'abhijna '303 etc. after crossing all adversities of


Now, with the four-fold state comprising 'mridu',304

'madhya', 3°5 'adhimatra '3o6 and 'adhimatrata ', 307 the four

faculties capable of piercing truths are attained. When

a little of the sphere of 'jfiana' becomes clear after the

apparent connotation (of things) is removed, the probing

faculty, ('nirvedha-bhagiya')308 called 'ii~mgata'309 is born. It

is termed as 'the samadhi' which has attained light' (alokalabdha

') in Mahayana. When that very sphere of

enlightenment ('jfiana-loka') becomes clear in a medium

way, it is called 'miirdhana310 nirvedha-bhagiya'; it is also

called 'enhanced-light samadhi' ('vridhaloka samadhi').311

When that sphere of light becomes clearer and is not

reflected in the external meaning of things, it becomes

'ksanti-nirvedhiya'312 owing to the presence still of 'vijiiana';

it is also termed as 'eka-desa-pravi~ta samadhi,313 because

the yogi enters the state of the non-attainment of the 'grahya'

(the object). When the non-dual ('advya'), 'jnana', born of

(the concept oO 'grahya' and 'grahaka', the object and the

holder, shines forth, it is called 'agradharma nirvedha

vahini';314 it is also called 'anantarya samadhi',315 because the

essence of things ('tattva') is entered into after it. Thus far is

the 'adhimukti charya bhumi'.

Other 'bhumis' are established, in brief, as complete with

eleven 'angas' .316 Here, the first 'bhumi' is established after


the attainment of the essence of the non-self aspect of

'pudgala' and 'dhannas'. So, when, after the 'agra-dharmas',m

an absolutely clear knowledge realising the insubstantiality

of all 'dharmas' dawns as supra-mundane joana, shorn of all

deceit, the true realisation of the bodhisattva, having entered

the faultless or immaculate state and having generated the

'dar5ana-marga,318 enters the first 'bhumi'. Therefore it is that

in this 'bhumi', the bodhisattva feels joy ('pramudita') owing

to his realisation of the unknown 'tattva' or essence for the

first tme. Hence, this stage is called 'pramudita'.319 One and

twelve repugnant-to-sight 'klesas' are destroyed during this


Other 'bhumis' are, in consonance with the 'bhavana

marga', the path of meditational contemplation. The sixteen

'klesas' born of three 'dhatus' and which are repugnant to

'bhavana' are destroyed in them. Herein 'dana-paramita' or

the Perfection of giving is more predominant owing to the

bodhisattva's tendency towards others' welfare like his own

and his awareness of the arising320 of 'dharmadhatu'.321

However, even after knowing the essence of 'bodhi', the

bodhisattva stays in the frrst 'bhumi' so long as he is unable to

roam in 'recollectedness' (' samprajiiaya ') during his

deviations from subtle meditation. When he is able to do so,

he enters the second322 'bhumi' with all its 'angas'323

complete. Therefore, during this stage, 'sila-paramita' is

more predominent owing to 'a-samudachara'324 born of

deviation from subtle meditation. This 'bhumi' is called

'vimala' as it is shorn of all the taints of unhealthy conduct.

He (i.e.) the practitioner roams about amid the

recollectedness of the deviations from subtle meditation. So

long as he is not capable of amalgamating all worldly

meditations and owning the meaning of all that he has heard,

he stays in the second 'bhumi'. When he is capable, he is

established in the third stage, all his components ('angas')

completed. 'Ksanti-paramita' or the Perfection of

Forbearance is predominent in this 'bhumi' owing to the

bodhisattva's tolerance of all sufferings for the sake of


'practising'325 what he has heard (from scriptures and

instructors) and the accumulation of all worldly meditations.

This stage is called 'prabhakari ', because it brings about

unlimited transcendental knowledge as a beneficial result of

these 'samadhis •.

He remains in the third stage in spite of attaining all

worldly absorptions so long as he is not capable of roaming

about frequently with his already achieved 'dharmas'

conducive to the bodhi path and of equanimity in the mind

with respect to all kinds of 'dharmas' and absorptions. When

he becomes capable of it, he enters the fourth 'bhumi', all his

'angas' completed. In this stage 'veerya-paramita' or the

Perfection of valour is predominent because of his roaming in

the midst of bodhi-inducing 'dharmas~ and his constantly

correct overpowering of the frivolities326 of body, speech

and mind. This stage is called 'archi~mati' because of its

capacity to bum away the fuel of 'klesas' and generate the

light ofbodhi-inducing 'dharmas'. He roams constantly amid

bodhi-inducing dharmas. He stays in the fourth stage. So long

as he is incapable of turning his mind away from the world

and towards 'nirv~' by meditating on the 'satyas'3Z7 and on

the assiduously accumulated bodhi introducing 'dharma', he

stays in the fourth 'bhumi'. When he becomes capable of it,

he is established in the fifth stage, all his components

('angas') having been completed. This (stage) is called

'sudurjaya', accumulated after a lot of effort, is won with

great difficulty.

'Dhyana-paramita' or the Perfection of meditation

becomes predominent in this stage by contemplation again

and again on the akara' or the (constituent) form of the four

arya-satyas' and he (i.e. the bodhisattva) becomes a frequent

wanderer in the assiduously collected 'bodhi' path. He is in

the fifth 'bhumi' so long as he is unable to enter the

absorption of 'a-nimitta',328 roaming through the creations of

a 'nirvatsaka'329 mind in order to enter 'samsara' through

analysis. When he is capable of it, he enters the sixth

'bhumi', all his 'angas' having been completed. lihis stage

has the preponderance of 'prajiia-paramita' or the Perfection

of wisdom owing to the bodhisattva's wandering in 'pratityasamutpad.

Because of the pre-ponderance of 'prajftaparamita',

he becomes prone towards all Buddha-dharmas.

Hence it is called 'abhimukti'.

He becomes the possesser of 'animitta-vihara'.330 He

stays in the sixth stage as long as he is not capable of attaining

the absorption of unblemished roaming in the 'animitta'.

When he is able to, he is established in the seventh stage, all

his 'angas' having been completed. In this stage, the

bodh.isattva pierces all 'nimittas' (intentions) with 'animitta'

(non-intention) but does not forbid behaviours born of

'nimitta'. So, there is a pre-dominence of 'upayaya-paramita'

or the Perfection of means (effort) in this stage. Being

connected with the 'anabhoga marga' or the path of total

absorption and hence extremely inaccessible, the stage is

called 'durangama' (reaching afar).

He revels in the unblemished and the 'nimimitta' (i.e. a

stage wherein no causal dharmas affect). He remains in the

seventh stage so long as he is incapable of attaining the

absorption of the 'anabhoga-vahi-nirnimitta' stage (i.e. a state

of total satiety involving no causal dharmas). When he is able

to, he enters the eighth stage, that 'anga' or com-ponent

having been fulfilled. This 'bhumi' has the preponderance of

Aspirational Perfection (pranidhana paramita) owing to the

union of the beneficial aspect (kusala paksa) with satiety

('anabhoga'). This stage is called 'achala' owing to its

stability through 'animitta bhoga' (enjoyment based on no

nimitta, i.e. immaculate joy).

He becomes a rambler in 'anabhoga animitta'. So long as

he is incapable of submitting to do all types of 'dharma

desana'331 based on the differences of components332 and

derivations333 etc. it is still his eighth stage. When he is able

to, that 'anga' having been completed, he is established in

the ninth stage. That stage has a preponderance of 'balaparamita'

or th€? Perfection of power owing to the bodhisattva

being equipped with special powers of wisdom with


the special force of insight.334 Being proficient in all types of

dharma instruction and possessing the benefit of a special,

unblemished intellect, this 'bhumi' is called 'sadhumati'.

In this (stage) he (i.e. the bodhisattva) becomes a

beneficiary of the attainment of four experiences ('pratisamvidas').

He stays in the ninth 'bhumi' so long as he is

incapable of showing 'buddha ksetra' ,335 'parshata,536

'nirmaQa'337 etc. and practising total 'dharma' sambhoga' and

'sattva-paripaka'.338 When he is able to, he is established in

the tenth 'bhumi', this 'anga' having been completed. Here

the bodhisattva's 'jfiana-paramita' or the Perfection of

knowledge is pre-ponderant owing to his being equipped

with special knowledge for practising 'sattva-paripaka' or

the being's well-being. This (stage) is called 'dharma-megha'

as it rains a rain of exclusive 'dharma' on innumerable 'lokadhatus'.

539 These stages are attained by other methods also

like 'skandha-pariSuddhi'.340 These are not being mentioned

here for fear of the book becoming voluminous.

Even after attaining 'nirmaQa-vasita'341 etc., so long as the

power to generate enlightenment of all hues of 'asakta'342

(unattached) and 'apratihata'343 (invulnerable) types about

known phenomena is not born, it still is the tenth 'bhumi'.

When he is able to, he enters 'Buddha-bhumi', this 'anga'

having been completed. This order of 'bhumis' has been

given in Arya-sandhi-nirmochana. There is no stage higher

than this 'Buddha-bhumi' and no other 'bhumi' beyond it has

been propounded, because all forms of perfection reach

their apex in this 'bhumi'. Even the Buddhas cannot fully

describe the virtues of this Buddha-bhumi as they are of

immeasurable variety. How can, then, persons like me?

Even 'svayambhu Buddha'344 cannot, while examining,

reach the ends of one virtue (of Buddha-bhumi'). Buddhadharmas

are inexplicable. Only this can be said in brief that

Lord Buddha, reaching the utmost bounds of personal and

others' acquisitions, residing in the faith of removing all

faults, working through his 'sambhoga-kaya'345 and 'nirmaQ.akaya'

346 in the 'anabhoga' form, by staying in his 'dharma50


kaya ',"17 ministering to the well-be~g of the whole world,

will roam the world as long as it lasts. 1herefore, wise people

should generate faith in the lords who are the treasures of

virtue. They should try to practise those virtues in every

manner. 1he virtues of the three bodies ('tri-kaya') etc. are

not being stated here lest the book should become


May the world with little 'jiiana' soon attain supreme

intelligence from the little merit ('punya') that I (may) have

earned by describing this path of the 'jina-putras' in

accordance with siitras and 'naya' (the path). 1his synopsis of

'bhavana-krama' has been done by Kamalasila on the

command of King Devaraja.

End of Bhavanakrama-1


Salutations to Manjusri Kumarabhuta.1

For those entering the path of Mahayana, 'bhavanakrama'

is being stated here in brief. Persons desirous of

attaining 'sarvajiiata'2 as early as possible must endeavour to

practise 'hetus' (causes) and 'pratyayas' (factors) which help

achieve it. • Sarvajiiata' is not possible without • hetu '3

otherwise it would become attainable by everyone. There

can be no obstruction• in the feeling of detachment5 as all do

not become 'sarvajiia'. Hence, everything depends on

'hetu', because anything may happen to anyone at any time.

'Sarvajiiata' too is possible only for someone some-what

somewhere. It does not occur at all times, nor at all places,

nor to everybody. Therefore, it is bound to be invariably

based on 'hetus' and 'pratyayas'. Of those causes and factors,

only those which are 'abhranta '6 and 'avikala '7 should be

practised. If one practises 'bhranta' or equivocal 'hetus',

there will be no achieving the desired result even after a long

time like (the effort oO drawing milk from horns. There is no

generation of fruit or result also without practising all the

'hetus', because there is no possibility of any sprouting in the

absence of any seeds etc. Therefore, one who desires that fruit

must practise all the 'hetu-pratyayas'8 or causal factors which

are 'abhranta'.

What are the 'hetu-pratyayas' for attaining the fruit of

'sarvajiiata'? It may be said that a born-blind like me is

incapable of revealing them; even then, I shall reproduce from

the words of the Lorq only who,- after attaining supreme

enlightenment, uttered them for the benefit of (his)

disciples.9 The Lord had said to them: '0 Guhyadhipati (the

lord of 'guhas')! that 'jiiana' of 'sarvajiiata' has compassion

('karuQii') as its root, bodhichitta as its 'hetu' and 'upayaya'

(practice or effort) as its end (pariavasana)' .10 Hence, those

desirous of attaining 'sarvajiiata' should get educated in these

three: compassion, bodhi-mind and effort.

Inspired by compassion, the bodhisattvas will certainly


undertake the vow to am eliorate the lot of all sentient

beings. Then, giving up selfish thoughts, they respectfully

engage themselves in the collection of extremely difficult

'jftana' and 'punyas' through a ceaseless and long period of

'sadhana'. Entering that 'sadhana', they are bound to realise

that accumulation of 'punya' and 'jnana' collections. When

'sambharas'11 are completed, 'sarvajiiata' will be in hand.

Therefore, compassion being the root of 'sarvajftata', it

should be meditated upon from the very beginning as has

been said in Arya Dharma-samgiti: "0 Sir! the bodhisattvas

should not seek instruction in many dharmas. Sir, if a

bodhisattva adopts and realises one single dharma, all (other)

Buddha-dharmas will be in the palm of his hand. What is that

one dharma? It is 'mahakaruQ.a' or great compassion."

Owing to their acceptance of 'mahakaruQ.3.', the Buddhas

stay on till the end of even the world ('sattva-dhatu')12 inspite

of their having attained all the wealth (of 'punya') for

themselves. They do not even enter the supremely peaceful

city (of 'nirvaQ.a') as does a 'sravaka'. On seeing sentient

beings (in the midst of their sufferings) and because of their

abandoning that peaceful nirvaQ.a mansion like a lac house

('ayogriha')13 in flames, the lords' 'hetu' for their unaccepted

nirv3.Q.a is that very 'maha-karul}.3.' alone.

Now, the sequence of meditation on compassion has to

be stated, starting with the first inclination (' pravritti ').14

Equanimity (of mind) IJlUSt first be practised by removing

attachment and hatred for all beings with the contemplation

of unconcern ('upeksa').

All beings desire happiness; they do not desire 'dukha'.

In the endless rounds of 'sam5ara', 15 there is no being who

has not been related to one a hundred times. So believing,

who could be very special to me? (That is, there is no

distinction between one being and another). Then, for whom

can there be attachment and for whom hatred? Hence, I must

have an attitude of equal-mindedness towards all beings. By

so contemplating and with a feeling of even-mindedness

(madhyastha-bhava), 16 I should practise equanimity of mind


towards friend and foe (alike). After that love ('maitri')

should be practised on realising equal-mindedness towards

'sattvas'. If the seed of compassion ('karur:ta') is sown after

irrigating the tendencies of the mind with the water of 'maitri'

and turning it into a golden piece of earth, the seed will

sprout with great felicity ('saralata').17 When the procreations

or tendencies of the mind18 get saturated with love, 'karuQ.a'

should be meditated upon.

This 'karuQ.a' (compassion) is of the form of the desire to

abolish all 'dukhas' of all beings. All sentient beings of the

three worlds are greatly suffering from the triple19 dukha; so

compassion should be meditated upon for all 'sattvas'. Now,

those who live· as hell-beings are constantly long-submerged

in such 'dukhas' as heat (i.e. fires) etc. This has been stated by

the Lord. Similarly, the 'pretas' (hungry ghosts), their bodies

emaciated with the dukha-fire of extreme hunger and

thirst etc.), are described as experiencing extreme suffering.

Even the beasts are seen experiencing many kinds of

'dukhas' like mutual devouring, anger, killings and violence

etc. Even human beings are seen experiencing immeasurable

sufferings from their penury, 20 from search for sensual

pleasure, treachery, hurt,21 separation from loved ones,

association with un-loved ones and poverty etc.

Those whose minds are enveloped in various defilements

like attachment ('raga') etc. and those who are drowned

in many a deep deviation22 are all seated on a precipice

('prapata')23 owing to the causes of 'dukha' (suffering) and are

really very miserable. Even the gods suffer from the dukha of all

kinds of 'vipariQ.ama'24 or change (on ripening of the fruit of

action). How can the gods who roam about in the realm25 of

desires be happy with their minds always baffled by the grief

of the fear of a fall and degradation (from their present

status). Sufferings born of mental constituents, which are the

cause of defilements generated by 'karma', are of dependent

nature and comprise of moment by moment transcience are

pervading the whole world. Therefore, seeing the entire

world engulfed by the flames of the fire of 'dukha' and


thinking 'just as I do not relish dukha so don't others and as to

how these dear ones of mine (i.e. the 'sattvas') could be

released from 'dukha' and so equating their sufferings with

one's own, 'karuQi' of the type which may be instrumental in

removing their sufferings should be meditated upon whether

in the 'samadhi' state or during all other 'charyas' (conduct).

Keeping in mind the aforesaid 'dukha' experiences,

'karuQi bhavana' should, flfSt of all, be practised on friends.

Then, seeing no distinctions owing to the equality of all

beings and by thinking 'all beings are my friends', one should

meditate on the middle path ('madhyapaksa').26 When

'karuQ.a' is directed towards all beings as towards one's

friends, one should meditate on it for all the beings in the ten

directions. 27 When, like the mother of a beloved suffering

child, 'karuQ.a' of the form of the desire to uplift the beloved

one from his suffering, flowing spontaneously, is equitably

directed towards all 'sattvas', it is regarded as complete

(' ni~panna ')28 and is designated as 'great compassion'


So, flfSt of all, the contemplation of love towards friends

is of the form of the desire for attaining joy. Step by step, it

should equally be done even for ordinary people as also for

one's enemies. By so practising this 'karuQ.a', the desire to

ameliorate the suffering of all sentient beings will be

automatically generated.

Thus, after meditating on root-'karuQ.a' or basic

compassion, one should meditate on 'bodhichitta'. This

'bodhichitta' is of two kinds: apparent ('samvrita') and

ultimate ('paramartha'). Herein 'samvrita' comprises the

undertaking of the vow to work for the welfare of all beings

through compassion: 'May I become a Buddha for the

good of the world' - this is the first generation of the mind

(' chittotpad ')29 of the form of the desire for transcendental

enlightenment ('anuttar samyaka-sambodhi').30 This

generation of the mind should be practised by the 'bodhisattva'

through another learned scholar established in the

vow ('samvara')31 of 'silsuddhi' (piety of conduct) and


detachment etc. in accordance with the method indicated in

'sila-parivarta,. 32

After generating 'samvrita' bodhichitta he (i.e. the

bodhisattva) should make efforts to generate 'paramartha'

bodhichitta. It has access to the ultimate meaning, is stainless

and stable and still like the flame of a lamp in windless calm.

Its realisation would be possible through meditation on the

union of 'samatha' and 'vipa8yana' constantly over a long

period coupled with reverence. As has been said in Arya

Sandhi-nirmochana: "0 Maitreya! whatever worldly and

other-worldly beneficent dharmas of the 'sravakas, the

'bodhisattvas' and the 'Tathagatas', -all are the fruit of

'samatha' and 'vipasyana', because these two are the

repositories of all samadhis' as was stated by the Lord in Arya

Sandhi-nirmochana itself: "Whatever the various samadhis' of

'sravakas', 'bodhisattvas' and 'Tathagatas' have been

indicated by me should always be regarded as attainable

through 'samatha' and 'vipa8yana'."

There can be no removal of 'avaraQ.a' or the delusive

cover for the yogis by contemplation on 'Sa.matha' alone; it

can merely be a suppression of 'klesas' or defilements.

There can be no real destruction of 'anusaya'33 nor its

removal without the light of 'prajna' (wisdom). As has been

stated in Arya Sandhi-nirmochana: "klesas' are suppre¥ed

with 'dhyana', with 'prajiia' is destroyed 'anusaya'. 'Arya

Samadhiraja-siitra' also says: 'howsoever much this 'samadhi'

be contemplated upon, it will not destroy self-consciousness

( 'atma-samjna'). It will again incite 'klesas' as in the case of

Udraka 's34 'samadhi-bhavana". However, if one observes the

non-self nature ('nairatmya') of dharmas and, so observing,

contemplates, it will become the cause of the achievement of

'nirvaQ.a' fruit. Nothing else spells for peace (santi).

Bodhisattva-pitaka also says: ''Those who have not heard

this dharma meaning35 of Bodhisattva-pitaka, being ignorant

of the noble Vinaya36 dharmas and remain content with mere

samadhi have a fall through the vanity of the ego and will not

be released from birth, old age, disease, death, grief, pain,


suffering, ill-will and anger; they will not be released from

the six-state round (of 'samsara'), will not be freed from

dukha heaps.37" Keeping this in view, the Lord has said: "He

who listens to the 'anukiila'38 (beneficial) from another will

be released from old age and death." Hence, a person

desirous of generating immaculate knowledge must, after

removing all 'avall)as', meditate on 'prajiia' by staying in a

state of mental equipoise ('samatha'). Arya-ratna-kiita also

says: "Establishment in 'sila' leads to 'samadhi'; attainment of

'samadhi' will lead to 'prajiia'; unadulterated 'jiiana' bestows

the wealth of 'sila'."

It is said in Arya Mahayana-sradha-bhavana sutra:

"0 Kulaputra! I shall not speak of as to how, in the absence

'prajiia,' the bodhisattvas' mahayana faith will be born in

Mahayana. 0 Kulaputra! even with this 'paryaya' or

equivalence, whatever mahayana faith in Mahayana is born in

the bodhisattvas, it should be regarded as born of a reflection

over the true meaning of dharmas with a staid mind."

The yogi's mind will become distracted by sense objects if

insight ('vipa5yana') is not accompanied by calm ('samatha')

or equipoise; it will remain unstable like a lamp in the midst of

wind. The glow of 'jiiana' will not be very clear. So, both

(i.e. 'samatha' and vipagyna)' should be equally practised. It

has been said in Arya MahaparinirvaJ)a-siitra "The 'sravakas

are unable to see Tathagata 's 'gotra' owing to excess of

'samadhi' and paucity of 'prajiia'. The bodhisattva can see

(Tathagata's 'gotra'), but not clearly owing to excess of

'prajiia' and paucity of 'samadhi'. The Tathagata is all-seeing

owing to an equal measure of 'samatha' and 'vipasyana'."

Owing to the power of mental equipoise ('samatha') the

mind does not waver even in contrary winds like a lamp unaffected

by the wind. With insight ('vipa5yana ') it becomes

invincible for others owing to the removal of profanities of a

deviated sight. As has been said in Arya Chandra-pradeepasiitra:

"The power of 'samatha' makes one un-wavering; the

power of 'vipa5yana' makes one mountain-like." Hence, the

union of both these has been ordained.


In the first instance, the yogi, in order to realise 'samatha'

and 'vipasyana' should quickly and straight-forwardly

practise the collections of 'samatha' (equanimity) and

'vipasyana' (insight). Now, what is 'samatha sambhara'

(equanimity accumulation). It comprises residence in a

conducive place, desirelessness, contentment, the renouncing

of many an act, purification of conduct and the giving up

of the contradictory desires etc. A conducive place is that

which has five qualities: 'sulabdha' (well-got) owing to the

availability of food and clothing etc. without much difficulty;

'susthiina' (good spot) owing to the absence of evil persons

and enemies etc.; 'subhumi' (good land) owing to its being a

land without disease etc.; 'sanmitra' (friendly, owing to its

being tolerant ("~ama-dristi ') like the conduct (' sila ') of a

friend; 'suyukta' (appropriate) owing to its being not too

crowded with people during day and of little noise at night.

What is meant by desirelessness or little desire? (It means)

having little attachment or desire for one's 'cheevara'39 to be

either fme or in access (of requirement). What is contentment?

To remain satisfied with the possession of ordinary

'cheevara' (cloth) or wrapping gown. What is meant by

giving up many actions? It is the giving up of such evil acts as

buying and selling, of too much dialogue between the

householder and the renunciate; forsaking praise and the

making of medicines and the calculation of stars etc.

What is the purification of 'sUa'? The non-discontinuation

of right instruction during both 'samvaras' (vows) whether in

'prakriti'40 (deviation) or 'pratikSepa'41 (contradiction); and if

it is discontinued through negligence, it has to be diverted

towards the pursuit of dharma through repentance.

Whatever has been said in 'sriivaka' vows42 about the

(preventive) precautions43 for a 'piiriijika'44 is inappropriate.

Even then, repentence is imperative after which one must

resolve mentally not to repeat it but to observe or experience

'nissvabhavatii' through the very mind which inspired one to

do that act and this would lead to the purification of 'sUa' too.

This can be learnt from Arya Ajata-satru-kaukritya-vinodin.


Therefore, after removing the faulty act ('kaukritya'), one

should practise meditation ('bhavana').

Even in (the realm oO desires, various faults accruing

from them here and hereafter (i.e. in next life) should be

mentalised and their contrarities should be given up. All

feelings of 'samsara', whether pleasant or unpleasant are

fleeting, destructible. Undoubtedly, there is bound to be

separation between them and me; so why should I be

excessively attached to them? Thinking in this manner, all

'vikalpas' must be eradicated.

What is meant by 'vipa5yana-sambhara' or accumulation

of insight? (It consists oO refuge in the good people, search

for the 'bahusruta' or the reputed scholars and mentalisation

of 'yoniSa' ('samadhi'). What kind of a good person should

be sought for refuge? One who is well-versed (wellreputed),

frank of speech, compassionate and capable of

enduring 'dukha'. Now, what is the meaning of 'search for

the 'bahusruta' (it is the search for) one who listens very

reverently to the 'neyartha' (dubious interpretation) and the

'neetartha (intelligible interpretation) of the Lord's twelvepoint45

dharma discourse. It has been said in Arya Sandhinirmochana:

"not to listen to the noble discourse as one may

desire is a hurdle in 'vipa5yana'." It again says: "Vipa5yana' is

born of the clear vision generated by listening and reflection."

Arya Narayana-pariprichha also says: "Prajiia dawns on him

who listens; the one with 'prajiia' has his 'klesas' calmed."

What is 'yoniSa mansikara~? For a bodhisattva who has to

decide correctly about the intelligible sutras-16 and the

equivocal siitra47 meanings to become rid of all doubts is to

become single-mindedly assured in meditation (bhavana).

Otherwise, seated in the wavering vehicle of doubt, he will

not attain single-minded decisiveness anywhere like a person

in the midst of a road junction ('sringataka').48

The yogi should always abstain from meat and fish etc.

and take only limited, conducive food. Thus should a

bodhisattva, who has accumulated all the collections of

'samatha' and 'vipa5yana', enter meditation ('bhavana').


Now, at the time of practising 'bhavana', the yogi should,

first of all, finish up his routine acts, be done with toilet etc.

Without a jarring tone and seated at a mentally convenient

place, thinking "I have to establish all beings in the bodhiadorned

('bodhi-manda)49 state', keeping in view 'mahakaruQ.

a' which aims at the well-being of the whole world,

bowing to all the Buddhas and bodhisattvas in all the ten

directions with his five limbs, fixing in front or on some stool

the image or the picture of Lord Buddha and the bodhisattvas

in accordance with liking (or mental inclination) worshipping

and eulogising them, repenting of one's sins and commending

the world's 'punyas', sitting in 'semi-paryanka' or full

'paryanka'50 posture of Bhattarka Vairochana51 in an

extremely easy pose,52 eyes neither too open nor too closed,

fixing the gaze on the tip of the nose, nor bending the body

too much nor keeping it too erect, keeping the body at ease,

turning recollectedness inwards, the bodhisattva should

make himself seated. Thereafter, he should keep both his

shoulders upright. The head, neither too upraised nor too

bent, should be fixed motionless to one side; the nose should

be straight navel-ward. The lips and the teeth should be gently

placed and the tongue should touch the roots of the upper

teeth. Inhaling and exhaling should neither Le too loud nor

thick ('sthiila') nor too vast but the breath go in and come out

slowly with automatic ease ('anabhoga').

Here, first of all, 'samatha' has to be realised. After

quietening the disturbing ·contrarities of the mind from

external objects, bringing it back constantly inwards towards

the 'alambana', the establishment of contentment-(' priti ')53

and peace ('prasrabdhi') in the mind, these spell but 'samatha'.

Contemplation over the ultimate nature of things by

holding on to the prop of 'samatha' is called 'vipasyana'. As

has been said in Arya Ratna-megha: "The concentration of

mind is 'samatha' and the insight into things is 'vipasyana'."

Arya Sandhi-nirmochana also says: "Lord! how can the

realisation of 'samatha' and proficiency in 'vipasyana' be

achieved?' '0 Maitreya! it is said that there is a dharma cure or


method established by me. It is like this: whatever siitras,

'geya' ,54 'vyakaraQ.a'55 'gatha'56 'undana' ,57 'nidana' ,58

'avadana' ,59 'iti-vrittaka' ,60 'jataka' ,61 'vaipulya' ,62 'adbhuta

dharma'63 and 'upade5a-varga'64 have been told by me to the

bodhisattvas, after carefully listening to those, owning them

up properly, practising (their) recitation, analysing them well

through the mind, piercing with insight Oit. vision), sitting in

solitude at a· lonely place, completely absorbed inwardly, one

should mentalise such dharmas as one deems proper,

because the very mind which mentalises also reflects in it that

mentalisation through constant contemplation. Thus entering

it and staying in it for many a time, whatever bodily calm

('kaya-prasrabdhi')65 or mental calm ('chitta prasrabdhi') is

attained, that in itself is called 'samatha'. Therefore, the

bodhisattva looks for '5amatha'. It leads to bodily peace and

mental peace. After achieving them, he stays in them and,

removing the confusion of the mind, he sees during 'samatha'

the reflection of those very dharmas which have been

contemplated upon; develops faith. The reflection seen

during '5amatha' is analysed for the state of its deeper or inner

meaning ('jiieyartha'). Thorough analysis, correct concept,

obsetvation, zeal, desire (to know), noticing the fme nuances

(of analysed dharmas), understanding and absorption, all

these consitute 'vipa5yana' and are called the skills ('kausala')

of a bodhisattva's insight or 'vipa5yana'.

The yogi desirous of the accumulation of 'samatha'

should ftrst fiX his mind on the accumulation of such things as

'siitra varga' or siitra compendiums, singable siitra portions

etc. and their entire discourses ('pravachana'), inclination

toward 'tathata' ('tathata-parayaQ.a'), descending into

'tathata' ('tathata praga-bharam') and march 'tathata-ward'.

Then, he should fix his mind in the 'skandhas' of all the

different types of many dharmas together or he should fiX his

mind on that image of lord Buddha as heard of or seen by

him. As is stated in Arya Samadhiraja; "The lokanathas' Oords

of the world) are resplendent on all sides with bodies of

golden hue. He whose mind is established in this 'alambana'


that bodhisattva is of an equanimous mind ('samahita')."

In this manner, the mind should be fixed on the very prop

('alambana') he (i.e. the yogi) wishes to and, afterwards, he

should do it increasingly. Having fixed the mind on it (i.e. the

prop), the mind should be tested in this way; 'does it properly

hold on to the 'alambana' or does it get absorbed or gets

baffled owing to disturbance ('vyaseka ')66 from external

objects?' Thus should it be examined. If overcome by

indolence ('styana') and cowardice ('middha'), the mind

becomes absorbed or shows signs of getting absorbed, he

should at once conceptualise mentally the supremely joyous

things like the image of lord Buddha or an awareness of light

('aloka-samjful'). Then, calming down absorption ('laya') he

should act in a manner that the mind's 'alambana' should

become very clearly reflected into that 'alambana' itself.

When like one blind from birth or like a person in dark or

like one with eyes shut, one qannot see the 'alambana'

(mental prop) clearly, it should be regarded as absorbed

('leena'). When running about external forms and their

supposed qualities etc. or through other mentalisations or,

through a previously experienced thing, there arises

insolence ('audhitya') and it is feared it may perk up in the

mind also, at such times, the yogi should mentally

contemplate on the transitoriness of all 'samskaras' or on

'dukha' itself,- things which grieve the mind. Then, after

calming down all contrarities, the mind's elephant should

again be tethered to the same 'almabana '-pillar with the rope

of recollectedness ('smriti') and awareness ('sam-prajiiaya').

When absorption and insolence disappear and the mind

looks to be calmly installed in that 'alambana', then,

suspending satiety ('abhoga'), one should stay in that state

with detachment for as long as one wishes. Thus the

practitioner practising ('samatha'), achieving bodily and

mental peace, when capable of steadying his mind on the

'alambana' as he desires, should regard '5amatha' as having

been realised by him.

After realising 'samatha', one should meditate on


'vipa8yana'. One must think like this; 'all the words of lord

Buddha are beautiful utterances ('sub~ita'), because they,

either manifestly or by tradition, express the ultimate

meaning or essence ('tattva') or lead towards it.' When the

essence of things is discovered, one will be freed from all the

meshes of view or sight (' dristi-jala ') just as darkness

disappears at the dawn of light. 'Samatha' alone will neither

purify 'jiiana' nor dispel the darkness of super-imposition

('avarar,'); 'jiiana' is purified by proper meditation

('bhavana') on the 'tattva' with 'prajna' (wisdom). The 'tattva' is

reached through 'prajiia' only. 'Prajiia' alone removes

superimposition ('avarar,:t.a') properly. Hence one should

think; 'I must search for 'tattva' with 'prajiia' after

establishing myself in '5amatha'; I should not be contented

with '5amatha' alone'.

What is the essence ('tattva') like? It is that which, in the

ultimate sense, is void of any self in all things and 'pudgala

dharmas?67 It can be reached through the perfection of

wisdom ('prajna-paramita') and in no other manner. As has

been said in Arya Sandhi-nirmochana; "Lord! by which

perfection ('paramita') is the 'nissvabhavata' of all dharmas

attainable by the bodhisattvas? '0 Avalokitesvara! it is

attainable through 'prajiia-paramita' (the perfection of

wisdom). Therefore, staying in 'samatha', one should

meditate on 'prajna'?"

Here, the yogi should deli]?erate like this: 'pudgala', is

not seen seperate from 'skandha' (heaps), 'dhatu' (elements)

and 'ayatana'(ent:t:ances). However, 'pudgala' is not of the

nature of 'skandhas' etc., because the latter are impermanent

and of varying nature while, as some believe, 'pudgala' is

permanent and of one (unvarying) nature. In reality, for the

indescribable 'pudgala' to be a 'thing' is improper because

of the absence of any other types of 'vastu-state' (permanent

entity or an existing thing). Hence, it must be considered that

to utter 'I' and 'mine' (for any supposed thing or entity) in the

world is mere delusion.

The non-self nature of all 'dharmas' should be similarly


meditated upon. Briefly speaking, 'dharmas' comprise the

five skandhas,68 the twelve 'ayatanas'69 and the eighteen

'dhatus'. 70 Here, those that are with form, such as 'skandhas',

'dhatus' and 'ayatanas' are not different from the form of the

mind in the ultimate sense, because there is an absolute

absence of the certainty of self-nature ('svabhava ')when they

are divided into atoms and even when sub-atoms are

analysed. Therefore, owing to a superimposition of false

forms etc. since time immemorial the ignorant persons see

their mind alone as over-casting external forms like the

emergence of forms in a dream. 'In the ultimate sense

(' paramartha ') these forms etc. are not different from the

forms of the mind,' - this is how one should ponder over.

Thus, the seeker should regard the 'tri-dhatu' as mind alone.

So concluding the mind to be manifesting all dharmas and

analysing them, he realises the nature of all dharmas and of

the mind too. Thus, does the yogi reflect.

Even for the mind to be true in the ultimate sense is

inappropriate. Where can the truth about the mind which,

after assuming the forms of false appearances, appear in

varying forms. Just as forms are false so is the mind which is

not apart from them. Just as forms etc. being of different kinds

are neither of one nor of severnl natures, similarly the mind,

being not apart from them, is neither of one nor of several

natures. Therefore, mind is of the nature of illusion (maya)


Just as the mind is so are all dharmas too of the nature of

'maya', this should be reflected upon. When the nature of the

mind is so analysed by the seeker through 'prajna', the mind,

in the ultimate sense, is not found either inside or outside nor

in both; neither the past mind is found nor the future nor the

present mind. When generated, it comes from nowhere nor

goes anywhere on cessation, because the mind is not

graspable, is undirected and is without form. As has been said

in Arya Ratna-kiita; "0 KaSyapa! the mind is untraceable even

when reached. That which is untraceable cannot become an

'alambana'; that which can not be made a,n 'alambana' has



neither a past nor a future nor a present." Thus on

examination, one does not see the beginning, does not see

the middle, does not see the end of the mind.

just as the mind is without an end or a middle so should

one understand all dharmas to be without an end, without a

middle. Thus knowing the mind to be without end or middle,

one does not discover any self-nature of the mind as such.

That which analyses the mind appears all to be empty

('~unya'). On knowing the latter, the nature of the

appearance71 in the mind and the nature of forms etc. will also

not be correctly seen. Thus, when the nature of all

'dharmas '72 is not correctly observed through 'prajfui', whether

form is transient or permanent, void or non-void, unclean or

clean,73 created or uncreated, existent or non-existent, he (i.e.

the. seeker) does not think of such 'vikalpas' or alternatives. just

as he does not find a 'vikalpa' for form C'riipa'), so also he does

not entertain a 'vikalpa' for 'vedana,'74 'samjiia',75

'samskara',76 and 'vijfuina';n When the existence of dharmas

cannot be substantiated, its qualifying attributes also cannot

be proved to exist. So, how can there be a 'vikalpa'(for

something which is non-existent)? In this manner, when the

yogi does grasp the conclusion about' the ultimate nature of

things after an analysis through 'prajfui', he enters 'niiVikalpa

samadhi' and also comes to realise the non-substantiality

('nissvabhavata') of all dharmas.

He who after analysing the nature of things through

'prajii.a' does not meditate on it but only meditates on

forsaking78 mentalization is never freed from 'vikalpas' and

will also not realise 'nissvabhavata' owing to the absence of

the glow of 'prajfui'. So the lord has said that through right

analysis and with the fire of the correct knowledge of things,

the yogi will burn the tree of the fictional mind79 like the

churning of ftre by the 'arani'.80

Arya Ratnamegha says; "Thus he who is skilled in washing

away faults, in order to remove all frauds for contemplating

'sunyata' (he) practises yoga. His awareness of 'sunyata'

enhanced, wherever his mind roams, in whatsoever his mind


busies itself, he realises on analysis all those things to be void

or empty by nature. The mind itself, when analysed, appears

empty ('sunya'). The mind which analyses also appears to be

'sunya' of any self-nature on examination. Thus examining,

he (i.e. the yogi) attains 'animitta yoga' .81 This indicates the

entry into the 'nirnimittata '82 stage through the lead or

guidance of analysis.

It has been clearly indicated how it is absolutely

impossible to enter the immaculate ('nirvikalpa') state by

merely giving up mentalisation ('mansikarita ') without

reflecting on the nature of things through 'prajiia' or wisdom.

So the yogi after thoroughly and correctly examining the

nature of forms etc. through 'prajiia' and not by confining

himself in forms sits in meditation. He does not practise

'dhyana' by staying in the middle of this world and the next

owing to the non-availability of those forms etc. Hence, this is

called 'unfixed meditation'.8~ When he enters 'anupalambha

dhyana, '114 after analysing all things through 'prajiia' it is

called 'praj~ottara dhyana' or post-wisdom meditation as has

been indicated in Arya Gaganaganja and Ratna-chiiQa.

He having realised the reality of the non-self nature of

beings ('pudgala-dharma nairatmya'), being beyond the need

for the observation or analysis of any other thing owing to its

non-existence, devoid of the din of argument and counterargument,

of his own volition and with natural ease should

meditate on the reality ('tattva') clearly and stay in it. Staying

there, he should not disturb mental emanations ('chitta

santana'). In between, if the mind is disturbed from the

outside by attachment ('raga') etc., knowing it to be a

deviation and quickly quietening down the mind from

reflection over the harmful (deviation) he should once again

make the mind enter 'tathata'. If he finds the mind uninterested

therein, he should reflect over the benefits of

'samadhi' and mentalise interest in it. Disinterestedness in

seeing the faults of (his) deviation ('viksepa') should also be

calmed down. If there is an apprehension of the mind

relapsing into absorption ('laya') owing to a dim instigation11'


from indolence and cowardice, it must be quickly calmed

down by mentalising an extremely joyous object as mentioned

earlier and the same 'tattva' should be firmly held as a

support. If on a recollection of some previous lightheartedness

the mind tends to become flippant, one must

mentalise, as already stated, the fleeting aspect of painful

things and calm down the mind. After that the mind should

again be attuned to the same 'tattva' through an approach86 of

natural ease or felicity.

When detached from 'laya' and 'audhatya', the mind gets

clearly attuned to that essence ('tattva') of its own volition,

the 'sadhaka' or seeker should practise detachment

('upeksa') by de-activising effort ('bhoga');87 if 'abhoga'88

(multiplicity) is indulged in when the mind is properly

attuned ('sampravritta'), it will become confounded. On the

mind being even absorbed, if 'abhoga' is not practised, it

remains bereft of 'vipasyana' owing to excessive stupor or

absorption. Therefore, when the mind is in a state of 'laya' effort

must be done (to stir it out of its state) but 'bhoga' should not be

done in the attuned state. When 'vipa5yana' is contemplated

upon, prajna becomes heightened; then, owing to the paucity

of 'samatha', the reality is not clearly seen due to the wavering

of the mind like a lamp in the wind. So 'samatha '(calm) must be

meditated upon at that time. When 'samatha' gets excessive,

'prajiia' (wisdom) should be meditated upon.

When bo~h (i.e. calm and insight) attain a balance, one

should stay in that state through 'anabhisamskara' or an

attitude of effortless repose as long as the body and the mind

do not feel an ache. During the interval of this body-mind

ache, look at the whole world as 'maya' (illusion), a 'marich'

(mirage), a dream-snare, a mere moon-in-water reflection

and then reflect like this: 'these 'dharmas' have become

complicated in the world as there is no knowledge of true or

serious ('gambhira') dharma; hence, I shall so act as to make

(the beings) aware of true 'dharmata' or the reality of things'.

So reflecting, one should place 'maha-karul)a' and

'bodhicitta' in front. Then, after a little respite, he should


again enter 'the state of meditation wherein all dharmas are

unfelt ('sarva-dharam-nin1bhasa samadhi'). He should again

relax when the mind becomes over-wrought. This is the duoleading

(' yuganaddha-vahi ') path of 'samatha' and

'vipasyana', which depends on the prop of 'savikalpa' and

'nirvikalpa' reflections, that is, admixed and immaculate


In this manner, the yogi should continue to remain seated,

meditating on 'tattva' for an hour, a half 'prahara', a"' full

'prahara'89 or for as long a period as he may desire. The

'artha-pravichaya dhyana' or the meditation which leads to

sifting the true meaning of the things has been indicated in

the Arya Lankavatara. After this, rising up from 'samadhi' but

without undoing the lotus pose, he (i.e. the yogi) should

reflect 'all these dharmas, although non-existing in the

ultimate sense, are stationed in apparent phenomena

('samvriti'); otherwise, how could the fruit of action ('karmaphala

') relationship be established? 'The lord too had said;

'things are created in 'samvriti' but they are non-existent in

'paramartha' (ultimate sense).'

One must ponder iike this; 'ignorant people super-impose

existence over non-existent things. In this manner their

intellect gets baffled and for long do they wander in the

rounds of 'samsara'. Therefore, after completing supreme

'punyas' and 'jfi.ana' accumulations and attaining the

'sarvajiiata' state, I shall educate those people about the truth

of the things (' dharmata ').' After this, the yogi should slowly

undo his lotus.posture and make obeisance to all the Buddhas

and bodhisattvas in the ten directions and, after worshipping

and eulogising them, he should undertake the great vow

('maha-prat:tidhana') of 'arya-bhadracharya'.90 After that an

effort should be made to accumulate all endless 'punyas' and

'jfi.ana' collection replete with. emptiness (' sunyata ') and

supreme compassion ('mahakarut:ta').

Such 'dhyana' is free from all kinds of superimpositions.

As has been stated in Arya Ratna-chu<;ia; "wearing the armour

of love ('maitri') seated on the throne of great compassion


('mahakarur:ta'), he pracitses the 'dhyana' of the accumulation

('abhinirhara') of the emptiness of all superimpositions

('sarvakara-varopeta 'sunyata'); what is that 'emptiness of all

superimpositions? (It is that) detailed as non-deviation

('ana pagati ')91 from 'dana', non-deviation from sila, nondeviation

from 'ksanti', non-deviation from 'veerya', nondeviation

from 'dhyana', non-deviation from 'prajiia', nondeviation

from 1Upaya' etc." Thus in detail. The bodhisattva

should work for the maturation of sattvas' (punya) or I sattvaparipaka'

92 and must practise such 'kusalas' (beneficient ·

means) like 'dana' (giving) etc. which generate such wealth

as field (ksetra), body (kaya) and proliferation (bahuparivara)


In the absence of the above, whose would be the fruit of

that wealth called I Buddha ksetras' (field)? So I sarvakaravaropeta'

is that knowledge or that 'sarvajiiata', which,

being full of such efforts as 'dana' etc. has been defined by the

lord as the one 'with the proficiency of efforts attained'.

Therefore, not 1Sunyata' alone but the methods (upayaya) of

I dana' etc. should also be practised by the boddhisattva. Arya

Sarva-dharma Vaipulya says; "0 maitreya! this method

advocates the coming together of Six Perfections for the

boddhisattvas' enlightenment. The ignorant people may

comment that the boddhisattva may be educated in 'prajiiaparamita'

alone and that there is no need of other perfections

(for him). Well, such people tarnish other 1paramitas' (perfections)

too. So, what do you think, 0 Ajita! Was Kasiraja93 a

fool to ~;ve away his own flesh in lieu of that of the pigeon?

"Nv Lord!" replied Maitreya. The lord continued, "0 Maitreya!

whatever 1kusala mulas'94 or root merits com-prising the Six

Perfections were accumulated by me while practising the

conduct of a bodhisattva, did they prove harmful for me?"

"No, Lord!" replied Maitreya. The lord said, "you also properly

practised I dana-parmita' for sixty aeons (kalpas), 'silaparmita'

for sixty aeons, 1 k5anti-parmita' for sixty aeons,

'veerya-parmita' for sixty aeons and lprajiia-parmita' for sixty

aeons. Even then the ignorant people will say that a single


path ('naya') like 'sunyat:a' can lead to 'bodhi'. Such people

will become ~impure of conduct."

The bodhisattva, with wisdom alone and without efforts

and means, cannot execute Lord Buddha's work like a 'sravaka'

cannot (execute). With the help of means ('upayaya')

only will he be able to do so. As has been said in Arya Ratnakuta;

"0 Kasyapa! just as kings execute their job with the

assistance of a minister, so also the bodhisattvas' 'praji'i.a',

coupled with the skill of 'upayaya', executes all Buddha

works." The direction of the bodhisattvas' path is different;

that of the 'tirthikas'95 and of 'sravakas' is different. The

direction of the 'tirthikas' path, owing to its contradictions of

self ('atma') etc. is totally shorn of 'praji'i.a' (wisdom); so there

will be no attainment of release ('mokSa') for them.

The 'sravaka' stage being devoid of 'mahakaruQa' does

not consist of 'upayaya'; so they tend to devote themselves to

(the persuit oO solitary nirvaQa. The bodhisattva path is

regarded as comprising 'prajfi.a.' and 'upayaya'. So they

become inclined towards un-installed or un-calculated

nirvaQa. The bodhisattva path being that of 'praji'i.a' and

'upayaya' they attain un-fixed or un-installed (aprati~thita)

nirvaQa. He does not fall into the 'samsara' because of the

force of 'praji'i.a' and does not fall into (the 'sravaka's

calculated) nirvaQa due to the force of 'upayaya' .

.Arya Marga-si~ says, "these two, in brief, are the paths

of bodhisattvas. What two? 'prajna' and 'upayaya!" Arya Sriparamadya

also says, 'Praji'i.a-Paramita', is the mother and

skilful means (upayaya), the father." Also (said) in Arya

Vimalakirti-nirde5a-siitra; ''What fetters a bodhisattva, what his

release? Holding on to the round of 'samsara' without 'upayaya'

is the bodhisattva's fetters, the crossing of the samsaric round

with 'upayaya' is his release. Holding on to the round of

'samsara' without 'praji'i.a' is his fetters; crossing the round

with 'prajna' is his release 'Prajna' (wisdom) not attached to

'upayaya', (means) is fetters; 'praji'i.a' attached to 'upayaya'

is release. 'Upayaya' unheld by 'praji'i.a' is fetters; 'Upayaya'

held on to by 'praji'i.a' is release". Thus (said) in detail.


If the bodhisattva practises 'prajiia' (wisdom) alone, he

will fall into the 'sravaka 's' desired 'nirvar,a' and so into ties

('bandhana'); 'aprati~thita nirvar,a' will not give release.

Thus 'prajiia' without 'upayaya' becomes a bondage for a

bodhisattva. Therefore, like people plagued by wind

(humour) using heat, or fire, the bodhisattva should practise

emptiness through 'prajiia' coupled with 'upayaya' in order to

counter the wind of contradiction ('viparyasa'); he should not

get to it (i.e. 'sravaka's nirvar,a in actuality or manifestly

('saksata') like a 'sravaka'). As is stated in Arya Da5a-dharmasiitra;

"0 Kulputra! just as a person serves fire and reveres it,

treats it (respectfully) like his own preceptor but still thinks

that that fire, so worshipped, respected and revered by him,

cannot be held by him in both his hands. Why? Because he

knows that by so doing he will get physical pain and mental

worry. Similary, the bodhisattva does not manifestly take to

'nirvar,a' although aspiring after it. Why so? Because he

believes that by accepting 'nirvar,a' he would retreat from

enlightenment ('bodhi')."

By practising 'upayaya' alone the bodhisattva, having not

crossed a common man's stage, will remain totally bound.

Hence, 'upayaya' should be practised along with 'prajiia'.

Like poison overcome by mantra-efficacy, the 'klesas' of a

bodhisattva too turn into nector by meditation through the

power of the adoption of 'prajfi.a'. What, then, to speak of

'dana' etc., which by their very nature, bear beneficient fruit.

It is said in Arya Ratnakiita; "0 Kasyapa, just as poison

accompanied by 'mantra' and medicine does not kill so also

the bodhisattvas owned by 'prajiia' do not have a downfall

through their 'klesas'."

The reason due to which the bodhisattva does not give up

the world is the power of his 'upayaya'; because of that (very

reason) itself he does not fall into the 'sravaka 's nirvar,a. The

reason due to which he removes all props ('alambana') is the

power of 'prajiia'; because of that very reason itself, he does

not fall into 'samsara'. So he attains the Buddhahood of unestablished

nirvar,a. It has been said in Arya-gagana-ganja;


"All 'klesas' are stopped by that 'prajiia jnaiia' and all sattvas

are not forsaken owing to 'upayaya Jiiana'?" Arya Sandhinirmochana

also states; "I have not spoken of supreme or

transcendental enlighten-ment ('anuttara samyakasambodhi

') for those who totally remove themselves away

from the sattvas' service or well-being, nor for those who

totally turn away from the refinement ('abhisamskara') of

their 'samskaras'. Hence, he who is aspiring after

Buddhahood should practise both 'upayaya' and 'prajiia'."

At the time of meditating on transcendental wisdom or at

the time of the extremely exalted state ('samahita'), when it

is not possible to practise 'upayaya' like 'dana' etc., whatever

'prajiia' is there as part of the experiment (' prayoga ')96

and partial attainment ('p~talabdha'),97 that itself constitutes

the practice of 'upayaya'. Hence both wisdom and means

occur simultaneously and that, in fact is the single duo-path of

'prajiia' and 'upayaya' of the bodhisattvas. Owing to their

being equipped with 'maha-karuQ.a', which looks over all the

sentient beings, they pursue or practise the transcendental

path and, at the time of ameliorative effort or means

(utthanopayaya) also, like a magicican, practise uninterrupted

'dana' etc. As has been said in Arya Aksyamatinirdesa;

"And, what is the bodhisattva's 'upayaya'? What is

accumulation of prajiia? It is that exalted absorption by which

the mind gets fixed on the 'alambana' (support) of

'mahakaruQ.a'(great compassion) by looking at 'sattvas'; it is

'upayaya'. That which gives the exalted absorption of peace

and supreme peace is his (i.e. the bodhisattva's) wisdom or

'prajiia'?" Maradamana-parichheda also says; "Moreover, the

elevating practice of the bodhisattvas is linked with the

knowledge of 'prajiia'; with the knowledge of 'upayaya' it

unites itself with the accumulation of beneficient dharmas.

With wisdom knowledge it engages itself in 'nairatmya'

(non-soul) 'asattva' (non-being), 'ajiva'(non-selO, 'apo~a'98

(non-permanence), 'a-pudgala'99 (non-existence of 'pudgala').

With 'upayaya' jiiana, he is to be engaged in the proper

maturation (' paripaka ') of all sentinent beings." Arya


Dharma-samgiti-siitra also says; "just as a magician, ready to

undo (the magical object oO his creation, has no attachment

towards it as he is aware of its reality, so also the bodhisattvas

wear an armour for the world, considering all the

three states of existence to be illusory and thus become

proficient in 'sambodhi' (enlightenment)". It is said that the

way of the bodhisattvas comprising 'prajna' and 'upayaya'

can be employed even when staying in the midst of the

world by keeping the goal in view; it can also be used while

staying in desired or fixed nirvar:ta ('asaya-nirvar:ta').100

After practising such 'upayayas' (means) as giving

('dana') etc. which have transformed themselves into

supreme 'sambodhi' comprising 'sunyata' and 'rnahakaruQa',

(the bodhisattva) should, regularly meditate on 'samatha'

(calm) and 'vispasyana (insight) as much as possible for the

sake of generating 'paramartha bodhicitta'. Arya gocharparisuddhi-

sutra says; "skill in means should always be

meditated upon through current recollectedness as instructed

in the same manner as the constant eulogisation of bodhisattvas

who are ever engaged in the good of sentient beings."

He who meditates on 'karut;l3.', 'upayaya' and 'bodhicitta'compassion,

means and bodhi-mind in the above manner

certainly becomes distinguished in this life. He will have the

'dar5ana' (sight) of Buddha and the bodhisattvas in dream; he

will also have other good dreams. Gods will protect him

through (their) commendation. Every moment will spell for

massive accumulation of merit and knowledge. Stains of

defilements will be destroyed; joy and amiability will always

increase. He will become the darling of the many. The body

also will not contract any ailment. The alacrity of the supreme

mind will be attained and special qualities like detachment or

unconcern ('abhijiiata') will accrue.

After this the yogi, by the power of 'riddhi'101 (special

attainments), goes to various 'loka-dhatus' (world) and

worships the Buddhas; he also hears dharma from them.

He will surely have the holy sight of the Buddhas and the

bodhisattvas at the time of his death. In the next birth also, he


will be born in a distinguished place and family, haloed by

Buddhas and boddhisattvas. In this manner he will, without

much ado, complete his merit ('punya') and 'jiiana'

collections. He will become the great enjoyer (of bliss) and

have a large family (of spiritual aspirants). He will also help

many persons with his incisive insight. He will remember all

his births in every birth. One must also learn about similarly

laudable and high praise (for this path) mentioned in other


In this manner, meditating on 'karuQ.a', 'upayaya' and

'bodhicitta' reverently, for long, 'paramartha bodhichitta',

accumulated through 'dar5ana marga' is born through the

generation of the extremely pure moment in the tendencies of

the mind and their consequent maturation as also meditation

on the essence of things up to its last limit like the churning

fire with 'yajiia' fuel, the decline of contrarities due to

supreme knowledge, an absolutely transparent dawning of

'dharma-dhatu' devoid of 'prapaneh' (falsehood), absolute

staidness like the unflickering lamp in a neat, quiet and

windless state or place, and full realisation of the 'tattva' with

its non-self nature. When such 'bodhichitta' is born, one

enters the 'alambana' upto the totality of things. He is born

into Tathagata's 'gotra' (class) and becomes inclined towards

unblemi~hed conduct and indifferent towards all worldly

tendencies, is established in a state of the awareness of

'dharma-dhatu' and 'dharma-dhatu' of the bodhisattvas and

attains the first stage ('bhumi'). This kind of praise of

'bodhichitta' can be learnt in detail from da5a-bhumiSvara102

etc. This 'dhyana' which provides the 'almbana' of 'tathata' is

indicated in Arya lankavatara. This leads to the unsullied state

of the bodhisattva's immaculate 'samadhi'.

The inclination towards 'adhimukti bhumi' is possible

through 'adhimukti' (faith or 'sraddha') and not through

(mental} refmement ('abhisamskara'). When that knowledge

dawns, he directly enters (the 'bhumi'). After entering the ftrst

'bhumi' (stage) in this manner, he attains the 'alambana' of

'proficiency in performance' (karya-~patti)1Q~ in the path of


meditation (bhavana) through the contemplation of 'prajna'

and 'upayaya' with the help of transcendental ('lokottara')

and later accumulated ('p~talabdha')104 'jnana' by purifying

one after the other, the lower 'bhumis' in order to achieve

better and better attributes ('guJ:ias') with the cleansingu15 of

accumulated dross (of 'avaraiia') which (only) 'bhavana' can

destroy; the yogi thus enters the bounds of 'Tathagata's'

boundless jiiana and the ocean of 'sarvajiiata. This sequence

of purification of the tendencies of the mind has been

mentioned in Arya Avalokitesvara. This leads to the purely

immaculate state of the bodhisattva. As has been said in Arya

Sandhi-nirmochana also; "(The bodhisattva) will become

enlightened with the. boundless transcendental knowledge."

Owing to his having entered the ocean of 'sarvajiiata' he,

like the wish-fulfilling gem, possesses sustenance factors or

'guJ:la' heaps for all the sattvas as sanctified by the fruits of

earlier vows, having attained the habit of supreme

compassion, equipped with many 'upayayas' through 'anabhoga'

(non-concernment), the fulfiller of all the purpose of

the entire world through endless ways, having attaiped the

ultimate limit of the highest attributes, wanderer in the

boundless world of 'sattvas' after eliminating the dirt of all

the faults of lust; so seeing the seer, after generating faith in

lord Buddha, the treasure of all 'guJ:las' (excellent attributes),

should himself make all efforts to achieve the perfect

fulfillment of those qualities. So the lord has said, "This

'sarvajiia jiiana' (the knowledge of the ultimate reality of

things) has compassion as its root, 'bodhichitta as its cause

and 'upayaya' as its fulfullment or consummation". With their

stains of jealousy etc. removed, the noble persons remain

unsatiated with (the accumulation oO attributes or qualities

like oceans with water. They accept beneficial words after

examining them just as the swans royal gladly separate milk

from water.(l)

Hence wise persons should put aside the mind baffied by

prejudices and accept good words even from the ignorant.(20)

The merit that I have earned by thus speaking of the


Madhaymika way, may it help all people to attain the

mahayana path.

The middle part of Bhavanakrama written by Acharya

Kamala§ila ends.

This version has been settled after the translation done by

the Indian Pandita Prajnavannana and Lotswa (the translator)

Reverend Jiianasena.

End of Bbiwanakrama-n


'Bhavanakrama' or 'the sequence of meditation' is being

described here in brief for those who have entered the path in

accordance with the way of Mahayana sutras. Therein,

although the lord has taught about the different 'samadhis' of

the buddhisattvas as 'aparimita'1 and 'aprrum,r,a•z even then

'samatha' and 'vipa5yana' include all samadhis. That is why it

is called the duo-path of equipoise and insight. The lord has

said, "By meditating on 'samatha' and 'vipa5yana' a person

gets released from the bondage of wickedness3 and of

nimitta. 4" Therefore, those desirous of removing all superimpositions

('avaq1as') should practise 'samatha' and

'vipa5yana'. The mind becomes motionless like a lamp in a

windless place, through the force of 'samatha'. Through

'vipa5yana' is generated the glow of the true knowledge due

to the revelation of the real nature of 'dharma tattva'. Then

the entire 'avarat)a' is removed like the (disappearance oO

darkness with the light of dawn.

The lord, therefore, has ordained four things for the

yogis: 'alambana'; 'nirvikalpa pratibimbakama'5 (directly

perceived reflection) 'savikalpa pratibimbakama'6 (mentally

acquired reflection), 'vastu-paryantata'7 (the ultimate limit of

things) and 'karya parini~;;patti'8 (fulfilmelit of work).

Whatever 'aJambana' is practised through the reflection of all

dharmas and the devotion or faith ('adhimukti') in Buddha

images etc. along with 'samatha' is called 'nirvikalpa

pratibimba'. It is 'nirvikalpa' or immaculate because it

analyses the true meaning of all phenomena in an absolute

('avikalpa')9 manner. It is a reflection ('pratibimba') because

it comprises meditating on the reflection of all see-able and

acceptable 'dharmas' as 'alambana'. When the yogi, in order

to understand the meaning of 'tattva' deliberates on that very

reflection through 'vipasyana', it is called 'savikalpa

pratibimaba' owing to the generation of analytical option

('tattva-nirupaQa vikalpa ')1° indicating 'vipaSyani'. Analysing

the nature of that very reflection, the yogi learns the nature of


all 'dharmas' like one surely coming to know of all the

deformities of his face by seeing the reflection in a mirror.

When he realises the such-ness (tathat:a) of the quality of the

end of all things then, owing to the attainment of all total

limits of things ('vastu-paryantatava '), 11 it is called 'vastu

paryanta 12 alambana, in the ftrst 'bhumi,. After that, like using

the elixir13 of a medicine, through the mode of meditation

(bhavana), due to the generation of a genuine interest in

other bhumis respectively and with the attainment of 'asraya

pravritti',14 when the yogi achieves the 'karya samapatti'15 of

the total removal of all superimpositions, that very 'jnana' is

termed as 'karya n~patti alambana' or 'the prop of all fulfilment

of action' in 'Buddha-bhumi' (the stage ofboddhisattvahood).

Now what does all this prove? (it shows that) the limit or

end of all things is realised through meditation on 'samatha'

and 'vipasyana', which leads to the all-avaraQ.a-removing

absorption in the objective, that is, the achieving of 'bodhi'.

Therefore, he who aspires to attain 'buddhatva' should

practise 'samatha' and 'vipa5yana'. He who does not practise

these two attains neither 'vastu-paryantata' nor ·~arya

n~patti'; 'samatha' here is the concentration of .the mind and

'vipasyana' the examination of phenomena ('bhutas').

The lord has breifly spoken of the qualities of 'samatha'

and 'vipasyana' in Arya Ratna-megha etc. Here, the yogi,

through staying in the accumulation of 'samatha' and

'vipasyana' by purifying 'sila' etc. and by generating great

compassion for all sentient beings, should practise hearing16

dharma, reflecting17 over it and meditating by means of the

awakened 'bodhichitta'.

At the time of 'bhavana' (meditation) the yogi should first

of all complete his routine duties like toilet etc., sit at a

convivial place where no jarring noise disturbs and,

undertaking the vows: 'all beings have to be established in

the glory of 'bodhi' by me', keeping in view 'mahakaruQ.a'

which aims at the well-being of the entire world, bowing

with his ftve limbs to all Buddhas and bodhisattvas in the ten


directions, installing the (image and pictures oO Buddhas and

bodhisatttvas on a stool or elsewhere, worshipping, praising

them as he may wish, confessing his own sins and

commending the virtues of the whole world, seating himself

on a gentle seat in the 'paryanka' posture of Bhattaraka

Vairochana, or. in the half 'paryanka' posture with eyes

neither too shut nor too open and gaze fixed on the tip of the

nose, the body erect but at ease and neither too stooping nor

too stiff, should make his 'smriti'18 or recollectedness inwardlooking.

Then the shoulders should remain level, the head

neither raised nor bent but staying steady on one side. The

nose should be in line with the navel and the tongue. should

touch the root of the upper 'teeth. Incoming and outgoing

breath should neither be loud nor gruffy nor fast but

automatic and natural with measured inhalation and


The yogi should first of all practise 'samatha' by

concentrating his mind on that image of Tathagata which he

has seen or heard of. Then, decorated with such special

marks as shine like heated or burnt gold, sitting in the midst of

the Buddha family (parsana-maQ.<;lala)19 and ministering in

myriads of ways to the welfare of beings, by constantly

mentalising such an image of Tathagata, the yogi should

generate an aspiration for (the cultivation oO Tathagata's

( (qualities or attributes). After calming down

absorption, insolence etc. he should continue meditating till

he sees (during 'dhyana') Tathagata as vividly as the image in

front of him. Then, he should contemplate on 'vipa5yana' by

observing the reflection of Tathagata's image as it appears,

disappears and appears (again and again). After that he

should deliberate like this; 'just as the reflection of Tathagata 's

image neither appeared from anywhere nor will disappear

anywhere and the seated image is also without any self -entity

('svabhava') and devoid of 'self' and 1-ness, similarly all

'dharmas' are devoid of (true) existence, (devoid of self and

devoid of 1-ness); they neither come (from anywhere) nor go

(anywhere) and are without an entity like the reflection'. So


deliberating and meditating on the tattva (reality) with an

immaculate and an indescribably composed mind, he should

continue to be seated as long as he wishes. This 'samadhi'

has been indicated or designated as Ready-Buddha-Seatedin-

front 'samadhi'. Its detailed 'anuSa.msa' (commendation)

should be studied in the sutra of that name.

In such ways comes about 'dharma' acquisitions (dharma

samgraha). By fixing the mind on these, one must practise

'Sama.tha' for the calming down of absotption (of attachment)

and insolence. In fact, all dharma acquisitions are vis-a-vis

'riipa-ariipi-bheda'20 (the distinction between the form and

the formless). Those acquired from 'riipa-skandha'21 are

called 'riipi' (with form); those acquired from 'skandhas'

(heaps) of 'vedana' (feeling)22 etc. are called 'ariipa'

(without form). The ignorant people owing to their fixation in

the acquisition of 'bhava' (worldly things) etc .. wander in the

'samsara' with their intellects deluded. The 'yogi', in order to

remove their delusion and by directing his 'mahakaruQ.a'

towards them should meditate on 'vipasyana' (after

perfecting 'samatha'), in order to realise the 'tattva'. The

examination of 'bhutas', (things or phenomena) is called

'vispa5yana' and 'bhuta' in tum, is 'pudgala' and 'dharmanairatmya'

(non-self, non-existent).

Now 'pudgala nairatmaya', is the non-self and non-I-ness

of 'skandhas' and 'dharma-nairatyma' is the delusion thereof.

The yogi must examine this. There is no 'pudgala' separate

from 'riipa' or form etc. owing to its non-reflection

(apratibhasa)23 and the factors like 'I am' are born from form

(riipa) etc. only; nor is 'pudgala' of the nature of 'riipaskandhas'

(form-heaps) etc. because form etc. are transitory

and various by nature and 'pudgala' has been imagined by

some as permanent and of one form. It is not appropriate for

'pudgala' to be thing ('vastu') owing to its being indefinable

from the point of view of 'tattva' and its separate-ness

('anyatva') and (also) because reality ('vastu-sata')24 has no

other form. Therefore, for people to speak of 'I' or 'mine' is

merely a foolish delusion. Then, he should, in order to attain


'dharma nairatmya', consider whether these 'form dharmas'

are permanent entities seperate from the mind or that it is the

mind itself which is reflected in form ('riipa') etc. like forms

in a dream. Examining them in their atoms or sub-atomic

parts, he will discover nothing. Thus, not finding anything, he

becomes bereft of the contradictions of being and non-being,

is-ness and is-not-ness.

The mind manifests the three 'dhatus' too, as is said in

Lankavatara; "Matter can be divided into atoms but 'riipa'

(form) should not create contradictions in form. Those with

damaged sight cannot understand the play of the mind".

The yogi reflects like this: "It is the mind alone which,

since time immemorial, appears externally as differe-nt forms

etc. to the-ignorant owing to its wrong ftxation on false forms

etc., like appearances in a dream. Therefore, concluding the

mind to be the manifestation of all dharmas and analysing

them, he comes to understand the nature of all· phenomena

and examines the mind. He deliberates like this; "The mind is

also uncreated, like an illusion, in the ultimate sense. When

the mind itself appears in various forms after assuming

illusocy shapes of 'riipa' etc., how can then its own existence

be established, owing to its not being different from (those)

forms etc. The mind, when being created, comes from

nowhere· and goes nowhere during cessation. It is uncreated

by itself, by others or by either of these in the ultimate ~ense.

Hence, the mind is like an illusion (maya). Just as the rrund is,

so are all 'dharmas' illusory, uncreated in the ultimate

(paramartha) sense."

The nature of mind by which the yogi examines

(phenomena) is also not traceable on examination. So to

whatever 'alambana' th~ yogi's mind travels, its nature or

substantial is-ness is not traced on examination. When that is

not found, understand all things to be without a real basis like

the mass of a plantain stem. The mind, then recedes. In this

manner, having become shorn of the contradictions of

'bhava'25 etc. and the old illusion26 gone, he attains 'nimimitta

yoga'. 27 Thus Arya Ratnamegha says, " In this way he (i.e. the


yogi), proficient in washing the dirt of (all) faults, attains yoga

through meditation on 'sunyata' for the removal of all

'prapancha' or illusory falsities."

His 'sunyata' meditation thus augmented, to wheresoever

his mind travels or to whatsoever he engages it, he

realises the emptiness of those places (and things) after

searching analysis. The mind itself, on examination, appears

empty by nature. Thus, through close examination, he enters

'nirnimitta yoga'. He also comes to know that he who does

not examine (things) closely, cannot enter into the 'nirnimitta


Examining the nature of 'dharmas' in this manner, when

he does not find anything, he neither postulates 'there is' nor

'there is not'. He who regards it as 'not there'; receives no

reflection in his 'buddhi' (intellect). If 'bhava' is noticed

sometimes, he should imagine its presence as 'not there'. If

the yogi, examining with his wisdom, does not discover any

'bhavas' during the three 'kala's (times) (i.e the past, the

present, the future), what postulates shall he imagine as being

'there is not'? So, in that situation, he has no other alternatives

owing to the preponderance of 'bhava' (is-ness) and 'abhava'

(is-not-ness) over all alternatives ('vikalpas'). When there is no

'pervading thing' (vyapaka),28 there cannot be any 'pervaded

object (vyapya).29 So the yogi enters the unaldulterated

imma-culate stage, and he does not rely on form etc. either.

Because of his not finding any substantial existence of things

on examination with 'prajna' he becomes a 'beyond wisdom'

('prajiiottara') practitioner. Having thus entered the essence

or secret ('tattva') of the non-self of 'pudgala dharma', due to

the absence of anything else worth examining and his mind in

its own volition in consequence of such thinking amid the

prevailing immaculate-ness ('nirvikalpa rasa'), the yogi

should remain seated by holding on to that 'tattva' clearly

with no mental exercise. Staying in that state, he should not

allow any aberrations of the mind.

If the mind, during the period, gets diverted towards

externals, he should examine its nature to calm down the


mind and then re-engage it in meditational practice. In case

the mind does not appear engaged, he should observe the

characteristics of 'samadhi' and contemplate engagement

therein. When (the mind is) disturbed, he should observe the

(characteristic) faults and overcome disinterestedness. If, with

the coming on of lethargy (' styana ') and indolence

('middha'), the mind appears to be apparently absorbed or

about to relapse into absorption, he should overcome that

'laya' (absorption inertia) by mentalising such joyous things

as the form of lord Buddha and consciousness of light etc.

Then hold on firmly onto that 'tattva': if the yogi is unable to

hold on to 'tattva' in a clear manner as would not one who is

blind from birth or has entered darkness or has closed his

eyes, his mind should be regarded as 'leena' (absorbed in

inertia) and as devoid of insight ('vipa5yana'). If he finds the

mind uppish in between owing to a (revived) desire for

previously experienced objects or there is an apprehension of

uppishness ('audhatya '), he should mentally ponder over the

painfully fleeting (nature of) things and calm down (that)

uppishness. After that, he should again make an effort to

effortlessly engage the mind in that very 'tattva'. When, like a

battled person or like a monkey, the mind gets distracted, it

should be taken as an indication of uppishness and the

absence of equipoise or calm ('samatha'). When retrieved

from such obsorption or 'inertia' ('laya') and uppishness, the

mind, engaged again of its own volition, re-yoked to that very

'tattva', the yogi should de-activate enjoyment (abhoga) and

practise detachment ('upkesa'). Then alone should the singleduo

path of 'samatha' and 'vipasyanii' be considered as


When meditating on 'vipasyaQ.ii' (insight) 'prajiia'

becomes excessive owing to the paucity of 'samatha', the

'tattva' will not be very clearly visible due to the restlessness

of the mind like a lamp in the wind. 'samatha' should be

meditated upon at that time. On 'samatha' growing excerssive,

'tattva' will not be very clearly visible to one" overwhelmed

by indolence. 'Prajiia' should be meditated upon at that time.


When both are equally engaged like two oxen (yoked) to a

single yoke, the yogi stays in 'anabhisamskara' till the body

and the mind ache.

Briefly speaking, all 'samadhis' sufffer from six faults;

laziness, 30 alambana - forsaking, 31 inert absorption, 32

uppishness,33 non-effort,34 and effort.35

As opposed to them, one should contemplate the eight

dispelling-samskaras'36 which are (mental) faith,37 desire38

(to act), effort,39 alacrity or activeness,40 recollectedness,41

awareness, 42 consciousness45 and detachment. Of these the

first four are the opposition of laziness, because with faith in

efficacious qualities, the yogi's craving (for meditation) is

born. Craving leads to effort ('veerya ') and when effort starts,

the body and the mind become active. With this activeness of

the body and the mind laziness, (kausidya) is removed.

Therefore, 'sraddha' etc. are meant for the removal of

laziness, they must be contemplated upon. The prop of

recollectedness (' smriti ') is the opposite of forsaking or

abandoning ('sampramo~a'). Awareness ('samprajftaya') is

the opposite of inert absorption ('laya') and uppishness

('audhatya'), because they are stopped when noted by it

(i.e. 'samprajiiaya'). If 'laya' and 'audhatya' are not calmed

down, 'anabhoga' will accur. As opposite to it (i.e. anabhoga

or disaffection), 'chetana' or consciousness should be

meditated upon. When the mind becomes calm after the

removal of inertia and uppishness, the fault of satiety

('abhoga') occurs. As opposed to it, detachment ('upek5a')

should be meditated upon.

If 'abhoga' occurs when the mind is evenly engaged, it

(i.e. the mind) gets confused. If 'abhoga' is not felt when the

mind is in 'laya' (inertia), the mind being without 'vispa5yana'

(insight), it will become totally inert ('leena') like a blind

person. Therefore, such mind should be controlled, its

uppishness curbed and detachment ('upeksa') again be

practised in that equanimous state.

After this, the yogi should remain seated in the

contemplation of 'tattva' through 'anabhisamskara' (the last


of the four releases) for as long as he wishes. In between,

when the body and the mind ache, the yogi should again. and

again think of the world to be an illusion, a dream, a reflection

of the moon (in water). As has been said in Avikalpa-ptavesa.

"(He) sees all dharmas like the surface of the sky through his

transcendental knowledge; with this background, he regards

them as 'maya', a mirage, a dream, a refleetion of the moon in

water." Thus realising the world to be an illusion and directing

his great compassion towards beings, he should think like

this: "these ignorant people, unaware of the reality of

'dharmas' superimpose existence on basically non-existing

dharmas and becoming baffled, gather many, many 'karmas'

and 'klesas'. Thus they continue to wander in the cyclic

round. I will, therefore, so work that I could make these

people aware of true 'dharmas'?" After a little rest, the yogi

should again engage himself in 'sarva-dharma-nirabhasa

samadhi' (the samadhi in which no 'dharmas' exist). In this

manner and in this sequence should he (i.e. the yogi) sit (in

meditation) for an hour, a half 'prahara' (i.e. about an hour

and a halO, a full 'prahara' (i.e. about three hours) or for as

long as possible.

Now, if he desires to rise up from his 'samadhi', he should

diberate over it without undoing the squatting posture

('paryanka') like this: although all these 'dharmas' are

uncreated in the ultimate sense but they still appear like

'maya' in varying and unthinkably attractive forms owing to a

certain conglomeration of causal factors ('hetu-pratyaya'); as

such, there will be no chance for a refutation ('uchheda

dri~ti') and no end to contradictions ('upavada'), because

nothing will come to hand on examination through 'prajfui'.

Hence, there is neither the context of a permanent view nor

any end to superimpositions ('samaropa'). Here, those whose

understanding is baffled owing to the qmfusion of their

wisdom-eye, perform a lot of karmas through self-conceit and

so go on wandering in the cyclic round. Those who,

completely indifferent towards the world, without

'mahakaru~', continue to practise the perfection of giving


('dana') etc. for 'sattvas', descend into the enlightenment of

the 'sravaka' and the 'pratyeka-buddha' owing to their being

devoid of effort ('upayaya').

Those regarding the world to be without true existence

('nissavabhava') and vowing to uplift the entire world

through the force of 'mahakarut:ta', their intellect being

unbaffled as a magician's, fulfil the accumulation of 'punya'

and 'jnana'- collections, attain the Tathagata status and they

will live forever till the end of the world by fulfilling all the

joys and welfare of the world. They, due to the force of their

'jiiana '- collections, having removed all 'klesas' never fall into

'samsara' nor do they descend into 'nirvat:ta' owing to the

accumulations of immense and immeasurable 'punya'

through their concern for all beings; such as these become the

sustenance of all beings. 'Therefore, I, desirous of the

happiness and comfort of all 'sattvas' and aspiring for 'unfixed

nirvat:ta' ('apratisthita nirvat:ta'), should always

endeavour for immense 'punya' and 'jnana' collections, thus

should he think.' As has been said in A.rya Tathagata-guhya

sutra also; "Jftana accumulation is for the removal of all

defilements (' klesas '), 'punya '- accumulation is for the

sustenance of all 'sattvas'." Therefore, the lord bodhisattva

mahasattva should always endeavour for 'punya-sambhara'

and 'jiiana sambhara' i.e. accumulation of merit and accumulation

of knowledge. Arya Tathagatotpatti-sambhava-siitra

also says; "There is only one reason for Tathagata's rebirth.

What is it? 0 Jinaputra (son of the conqueror)! Tathagatas are

reborn owing to tens of thousands of immeasureable causes.

What are those, then? (They are) the causes for the rightful

fulfillment of their insatiate accumulations of merit and

knowledge." Arya Vimala-kirti-nirdesa also states. "The

tathagata 's bodies are born of hundreds of merits, of all the

meritorious dharmas, and of the countless 'roots of noble

dharmas ('kusal-dharma miila') etc."

Then, undoing the 'paryanka' posture slowly he should

offer obeisance to all the Buddhas and boddhisattvas stationed

in the ten directions and, after worshipping and eulogising


them, he should perform such vows as 'aryabhadracharya' etc.

After that he should engage in the attainment of all such

'punya' accumulations as 'dana' etc., which have been

dedicated (for the sattvas' well-being) through such supreme

enlightenment as is embraced by 'sunyata' and 'karuQ.a'.

Those who believe 'sattvas' under the $Way of good and

bad 'karma', born of the contrarities of the mind, wander in

'samsara' after enjoying heaven etc. as the fruit of their

actions' and those who think nothing, perform no actions and

hope to be released from 'samsara' without needing to think

anything or do any 'kusala karma' believing that conduct such

as 'giving' (dana) etc. has been indicated for ignorant fools; it

is through people of both these categories that entire

Mahayana gets negated and Mahayana being root of all

vehicles (yana), its negation will spell the negation of all other

vehicles. The attitude of 'nothing need be thought of' will

mean the negation of 'prajfia' (wisdom) which analyses

phenomena ('bhutas ') as analysis or examination alone is the

root of true knowledge ('jfiana'). When that is negated,

transcendental wisdom will also be negated owing to the

severing of its root. With 'lokottraprajfia' gone, omniscience

('sarva-karjfiata') will also get negated. To say that beneficient

conduct like 'dana' etc. should not be practised will invariably

lead to the negation of 'upayaya' such as giving ('dana').

Briefly speaking, 'prajfia' and 'upayaya' alone constitute

Mahayana. As Arya Gaya-sir~a says; "These two alone are the

bodhisattva's way. What two? Well, 'prajfia' (discriminating

wisdom) and 'upayaya' (meaningful effort)." Tathagataguhya-

siitra too says, "Prajfia and upayaya' are meant for the

accumulation of all the perfections (' paramitas ') by bodhisattvas."

Therefore, the denial or negation of Mahayana will

create a massive 'karma' superimposition ('karmavaraQ.a').

So the wise person desirous of his own good should abandon

even from a distance, like poisoned food, such poisonous

words as are opposed to scriptures ('agama') and logic

('yukti') from people who deny Mahayana, are of selfish

intent, render not service to the learned and imbibe not the


spirit of Tathagata 's words and who, as self -destroyers, are

also destroying others.

Negation of the analysis of things ('bhuta ') will spell the

denial of the most prominent of bodhi components, the

'pravichaya' (analysis) of dharmas. In the absence of 'bhuta'

examination, with what will the yogi make his mind enter

immaculateness ('nirvikalpata') when the mind has been

prone to fixation in such entities as form ('riipa') etc. since

time immemorial? If it is said that all dharmas can be

understood without recolleted-ness and without mentalisation,

it is not appropriate, because all experienced things

(' dharmas ') cannot be subjected to non-recollectedness and

non-mentalisation without 'bhuta' examination. 'I do not

have to recollect these 'dharmas'; I do not have to mentalise

them'; if, by thinking in this manner, the contemplation of

non-recollectedness and non-mentalisation is practised on

those dharmas, they are bound to become recolleted and

mentalised. If the mere absence of recolleted-ness and

mentalisation is taken for non-recollectedness and nonmentalisation,

it has to be thought out as to how the is-not-ness

of both can come about. To have a 'hetu' (cause) for

'abhava'(is-not-ness) is inappropriate. How can immaculation

('nirvikalpata') ensure from the 'nirnimitta' (nonconceptualised)

and the non-mentalised? Even an

unconscious person being devoid of recollectedness and

mentalisation can also be regarded as being in the 'nirvikalpa'

state as a consequence of such stupor ('avikalpata'). There

is no other means except 'bhuta' -examination by which

non-recollectedness ('a-smriti') and non-menatalisation ('amanasikarita')

can be brought about.

Undoubtedly, even during 'a-smriti' and 'a-manasikara'

the non-self-existence of 'dharmas' cannot be (fully) realised

with 'bhuta' examination (alone). 'Dharmas' are not empty

(' sunya ') by nature'; now, this kind of a stipulation cannot be

pierced through except through an analysis of emptiness.

The removal of the 'avaral)a' is not possible without the

realisation of 'sunyata'; otherwise, everyone everywhere


will be entitled to 'mukti' (liberation).

What of the yogi who does not practise recollectedness

('smriti') and mentalisation ('manasikara') owing to his giving

up the former or out of sheer folly, how can such an extremely

foolish person become a yogi? Without examination of things

and being engaged in 'a-smriti' and 'a manasikara', he will

become engrossed with delusion alone which will snuff out

the light of true knowledge. If he is not shorn of recollectedness

nor is he foolish, how will he be able to

practise non-recollectedness and non-mentalisation without

'bhuta' examination~ It would be appropriate to say that such

a person does not recollect while recollecting, does not see

while seeing. How, with the practice of non-recollectedness

and non-mentalisation, will buddha-dharmas like the

previously residual and continued recollectedness

('anusmriti')44 etc. arise owing to the (inherent) contradiction

involved? The experiencing of cold as opposed to heat does

not permit the feeling of heat!

If the 'samadhi '-proficient yogi has any psychological

knowledge, he must invariably have an 'alambana'. The

common people cannot be suddenly enlightened without an

'alambana' (prop). By what opposing thing is the superimposition

of mental defilements ('klesas') removed? There

is no possiblity for cessation of the. mind45 for the common

person who has not attained the Fourth Dhyana. 46 Therefore,

non-recolletedness and non-mentalisation that have been

spoken of for a good religious conduct ('saddharma') or true

'dharma' should also be viewed in the context of 'bhuta'

examination only and not otherwise. So, when the yogi,

examining through correct 'prajiia', does not observe the

arising of any 'dharma' in all the three times (i.e. the past, the

present and the future), how shall he (be able to) do

'manasikara' and 'smara~a' (mentalisation and recollection)?

He who even during the three times, has not experienced the

'asattvas'17 in the ultimate sense, how may he have

recollectedness or mentalisation? For this very reason, he

enters the immaculate 'jnana' in which all contradictions have


cessation or are warded off. Entering it, he realises 'sunyata'

and realising it, he removes all snares of deviation.

The practitioner of wisdom ('prajfta') coupled with

means ('upayaya') becomes totally proficient in 'samvriti'

(the apparent) and 'paramartha' (the ultimate) truths. So by

attaining knowledge bereft of superimpositions, he attains all

'Buddha-Dharmas'. Therefore, without 'bhuta' analysis,

there is neither the dawn of true knowledge nor the removal

of 'klesa' cover. It is said in Manjusri Vikurvata-sutra;

"0 Darika!48 how does a bodhisattva become the victor in the

battle'? (Reply) '0 Manjusri! by not coming across any

'dharmas' after repeated examination". Hence the yogi, with

his eye of knowledge wide open and after totally overcoming

his 'klesa' foes with the weapon of 'prajna' wanders about

without fear un-like a frightened coward with eyes closed. It

is said in Arya Samadhiraja-sutra also: "If one examines nonself

'dharmas' and, examining them, meditates, it becomes a

cause for the attainment of 'nirvaQ.a' fruit; any other cause

('hetu') brings not peace." Sutra-sammuchaya also says;

"Himself engaged in the practice of 'vipa5yana', if one does

not help others engage themselves in 'vipa5yana', it (i.e. his

own practice) becomes an evil act."

'Vipasyana' is of the nature of 'bhuta' analysis; this has

been stated in Arya Ratna-megha and Sandhinirmochana etc.

Says Arya Ratnamegha; "The knowledge of the non-true

existence of things (' nissvabhavata ') through analysis with

insight ('vipasyana') is termed as entering the 'nimimitta' ."

Arya Lankavatara also says; "0 wise one! the 'bhavas' when

examined by the intellect do not yield any 'jnana' about their

individual and general characteristics. That is why it has been

said that all 'dharmas' are non-existent. If 'bhuta'examination

is not done, it will lead to a refutation of the

many kinds of analytical methods suggested in the 'sutras' by

the lord. As such it would be proper to say that we, of little

intellect and less courage, are incapable of (understanding)

erudite ('bahusruti')49 analysis. The lord had praised

erudition a lot; therefore, it is never appropriate to refute it."


It has been said in Punarbrahma-pariprichha: "Those who get

engaged in thinking over un-thinkable 'dharmas', experience

perversion of thought ('ayoni.Sa').50 Also, those who imagine as

created 'dharmas' which are uncreated in the ultimate sense

and regard them as transient and full of suffering as 'sravakas'

do, get into the 'ayonisa' (perversion) state owing to their

thinking being bereft of (the two factors of) 'samaropa'

(superimposition) and 'apavada' (contradiction)", (that is,

because they do not consider the two factors).

Whatever has been said in refutation of such tendencies is

not a refutation of (the desirability of) 'bhuta'-analysis which

has been recommended by all the 'sutras'. Brahmapariprichha-

siitra itself says; "Chitta-sura (valiant of mind)

bodhisattva has said that he who thinks over all dharmas with

the mind and remains uncovered and untouched by them is

called a 'bodhisattva' as such." Again it says': "How do they

(i.e. the bodhisattvas) become valorous? Well, when they do

not find the 'sarvajiiata' mind while looking for it, they alone

will become wise who examine abstract ('yonisa'), 'dharmas';

.they categorise 'dharmas' as illusion ('maya') and mirage

(' marichi ')."

It should be known that whenever the din of words like

'achintya' (unthinkable) etc. is heard, it is meant for propounding

the analysis of the core entity (' pratyatmavedaniyata

') of 'dharmas' for the refutation of the ego of such

people as believed in the realisation of the reality ('tattva')

only through hearing and deliberating it; it also refutes

'ayonisa' of the mind (i.e. the mind's adherence to wrong,

pervert 'dharmas'). It certainly does not mean a refutation of

'bhuta' examination; otherwise, as already stated, it would

mean a contradiction of various arguments ('yukti') and

scriptures ('agama'). Whatever knowledge is gained through

'prajiia' born of hearing and thinking should be contemplated

upon through meditational wisdom and nothing else. A horse

runs (well) on its familiar race-course, so 'bhuta' examination

or 'the analysis of all phenomena' must be practised.

Although it may (tum out to) be of an opposite nature but,


owing to its being of the quality of correct mentalisation

('yonisa manasikara'), it generates undifferentiated

('nirvikalpik') 'jnana'. With this belief, he who is desirous of

such 'jnana' should practise this (examination of 'bhutas').

Arya Ratna-kiita says that with the generation of the fire of

right 'nirvikalpa jnana', it will bum itself away in that fire like

two faggots burning themselves out in the fire generated by

their own rubbing ('gha~I)a') together.

It is (sometimes) said that no 'kusa1a' (meritorious) acts

etc. need be done as the exhaustion of 'karma' leads to

liberation. Well, such a belief will (only) lead to 'ajivakavada'.

51 That the exhaustion of 'karma'leads to liberation has

not been propounded in the Lord's word. How then? (i.e.

how can 'mukti' or release come about)? Well, through the

cessation of 'klesas' (mental deftlements). It is not possible to

exhaust action ('karma') (already) performed since eternity,

because they are innumerable. While suffering the fruit of

such actions during lower births, more karmas are generated.

The non-cessation of 'klesas' makes them the cause of the

non-cessation of 'karma' just as the light of a lamp will not

cease without the lamp being put out. It has already been

stated that the cessation of 'klesas' is impossible for one who

denies 'vipa8yana' (insight). If it is agreed that the practice of

'vipasyana' is essential for the cessation of 'klesas', 'klesa'

cessation itself will give liberation and the labour for the

exhaustion of 'karma' will become meaningless. To say that

non-meritorious (a-kusala) action should not be performed is

appropriate. Why 'kusal karma' is refuted is that if its

performance generates 'samsara', it is not proper. And, only

those 'kusala' acts' are 'samsara' prone which are born of all

the contrarities of 'self' etc. and (certainly) nbt the actions of

boddhisattvas which are born of great compassion

('mahakaruQ.a') and their dedication of 'punya' (pariQ.amita)

through transcendental enlightenment. So it has been

indicated about the 'pariQ.amana' (dedication) of these very

ten 'kusala dharmas' as (acts oO extreme purification in the

'sadhana' (practice) of the 'sravakas', the 'pratyeka-buddhas',


the 'bodhisattvas' and the Buddhas. Arya Rantnakuta also

states; "Like the collection of water from all the great rivers

into the great ocean, the root-merits ('kusala-mula') collected

by the bodhisattvas through various means, after being

transformed into 'sarvajiiata' become one taste (i.e.

equanimity) in (that) omniscence (which reveals the true

nature of things)."

The wealth that the Buddhas and the bodhisattvas earn in

the shape of (their) physical form ('rupa-kaya'), fieldpurification

('ksetra-parisuddhi'),52 aura (prabha),5'

proliferation ('parivara'),54 full happiness ('mahabhoga')55

etc. is the fruit of the accumulation of 'punya'; so has it been

mentioned here and there in the siitras by the Lord; these too

will get negated. The refutation of 'kusala' conduct also

means · the refutation of the vow of emancipation

('pratimoksa samvara)56 etc. Thus his (i.e. the yogi's) shorn

head and begging bowl etc. will be of no avail; when 'kusala'

action becomes indifferent to 'purification' ('abhisamskara ') it

will lead to indifference towards 'samsara' and towards

actions for the sake of 'sattvas'. In consequence, it will also

make 'bodhi' (enlightenment) a distant thing. It has been said

in Arya-sandhi-nirmochana; "I have not spoken of supreme

true enlightenment for those who totally tum away from

actions for 'sattvas' and from the rectification of 'samskaras."

Arya Upali-pariprichha also says. "To be indifferent towards

'samsara' constitutes great misconduct for 'bodhisattvas'.

Accepting 'samsara' is supreme good conduct." AryaVimala-

kirti-nirdesa also states: going into samsara with

'upayaya' is release for boddhisattvas. 'Prajiia' without

'upayaya' is shackling, 'upayaya' with 'prajiia' is release;

'prajiia' with 'upayaya' is release." Arya Gaganaganja says,

"'J;o be averse towards 'samsara' is evil kanna for bodhisattvas."

Also said in Siitra-sammuchaya, "Even 'asamskrita dharmas'

are to be analysed and to be averse to 'samskrita dharmas' is

evil 'karma'." If he knows the 'bodhi'-path but does not

investigate the way of Perfections ('parmita-yana'), it is

tantamount to doing 'mara-karma' (evil 'karma'). It is again


said therein; "From fixation of the mind in 'dana' etc. to

fixation of the mind in 'prajna' is evil karma ('mara karma')."

Now in this assertion there is no forbidding of practising

'dana' etc. but what has been forbidden is the addiction of the

mind to the ego and I-ism, in the concept of the 'grahya' (the

object to be achieved) and 'grahaka' (the person who

receives or achieves) - that is, the received and the

receiver, contrary fixation in the donor's57 charity ('dana').

'Dana' etc. dependent on contrary fiXation is impure, 'mara

karma'. Otherwise, 'dhyana' etc. will also not be worth

practising, how will, then, release come about?

Whatever 'dana' etc. is given because of or by keeping in

view the variety of 'sattvas' by the donor ('aupalam-bhika') is

impure. Arya Gaganaganja propounds it thus: '"dana' etc.

which indicate differentiation among beings ('sattvaa') are the

acts of the devil ('mara karma;)". So it has been stated in Triskandha-

parir:tamana. "'Dana'(giving), 'sila' (conduct),

'ksanti' (forbearance) 'veerya' (valour or effort), 'dhyana'

(meditation), 'prajiia' (wisdom), not aware of the 'samata'

(equivalence) of all these by one who falls into obtainment (of

'dana' etc.), for such a one I teach as to how to protect 'sila'

(character) from diseased58 'sila' or misconduct (born oO

lapses59 in 'dana' and 'ksanti-bhavana' (contemplation of

forbearance) from the nomenclature of 'I' (sva) and 'other'

('para') etc." Here too such giving (dana) etc. which rises

above the contrarities of differentiation ('nanatva'), becomes

purified for the giver ('aupalam-bhika'); so has it been

propounded and not the forbidding of 'dana' etc. in toto;

otherwise, 'dana' etc. would have been wholly commended

as such, and its descending into contrary obtainment would

not have found mention: It has been said in Brahmapariprichha

also: "all conduct ('charya') is 'parikalpita.!60

(based on factor or causes); 'bodhi alone is without 'hetu' or

'pratyaya' (n~parikalpa).61 " Owing to the varying nature of

practices for the generation of 'bodhi' (enlightenment), even

'bodhi' is (sometimes) mentioned as 'parikalpita' (created or

fashioned). What has been propounded here is that to stay in


a state of effortless abstraction is the explanation62 of the

bodhisattva alone and none else's. What has been said is

about the uncreatedness of 'dana' etc. in the ultimate sense

and not that no practice (of it) should be performed.

The Buddhas who were honoured by the Lord in

Dipankara63 - avadana and whose names could not be enumerated

in an aeon ('kalpa') (by the lord) were never

forbidden from any practice (' charya ') during their bQdhisattva

period. Dipankara also did not refute any of the lord's

'charyas' However, when he (i.e bodhisattva Dipankara) was

noticed, in the state of 'santa animitta-vihara' (a state of

absolute equipoise and tranquillity) during the eighth

'bhumi', he expounded this (teaching) but there also he did

not forbid its practice. The bodhisattva's supreme revelling in

the 'animitta'64 during the eighth 'bhumi' has been forbidden

by the Buddhas in Da5abhumiSvara 'lest they may attain their

'nirvana' here itself'. If no 'charya' (practice) is to be

performed at all, it would negate all that has been said earlier

(about the bodhisattva's charya).

Again, Brahma-pariprichha says: "He gives in charity but

does not desire its fruit; he guards his 'sila' but it is never

superimposed." "0 Brahma! become non-returning

('avaivartika')65 in Buddha dharmas when equipped with

four 'dharmas'." What four? Accepting the unlimited

'samsara', veneration and worship of limitless Buddhas etc.

will stand against anything. It is proper to say that practice

should be done neither with mild senses (' mridu indriya ')66

nor with sharp senses ('tiksal).a indriya')67 alone, for in this

way, for the bodhisattvas established in the first stage to the

tenth, the 'charya' (practice) of 'dana' etc. is generated nor

does he roam68 not in the residual appendices;69 thus has it

been said. It is improper to say that one who has entered the

'bhumi' is of 'soft senses'. As has been stated in Arya Upalipariprichha;

"Only he who is established in the nongenerating

'dharma-ksanti' should practise renunciation

('tyaga'),7° great renunciation (mahatyaga)71 and total

renunciation ('ati-tyaga').72" Sutra samuchaya also says: 'the


bodhisattva, equipped with the attainment of the six

perfections, functions through the 'riddhi' (special power) of

Tathagata. There is nothing speedier than the speed of

Tathagata's power. And, for the boddhisattvas, there is no

path speedier than that of the six perfections, and the ten

'bhumis'." The siitra says that mental generation (i.e.

tendencies) is refined gradually like the refining of gold.

Arya Lankavatara and Dasa-bhumisvara also state: "When the

bodhisattva gets established in 'tathata' he enters the first

'bhumi'. After that, step by step, he enters the 'Tathagata

bhumi, after refining the preceding 'bhumis'. Therefore,

there is no other gateway than that of 'bhumis' and

'paramitas' (perfections) to simultaneously enter the city of


It is improper to say that as all the Six Perfections come

within the ambit of 'dhyana' and that all of them are fulfilled

by its practice, so other perfections like dana etc. need not be

practised. If it were so then, owing to the six perfections

coming within the ambit of Lord Buddha's (gomayamal)<,

iala)73 only maQ.<,iala, 74 should be practised and not

'dhyana' etc. Even a 'sravaka' who has entered the

absorption (' samapatti ') of 'nirodha '-samadhF5 will be

deemed to have attained the fulfilment of the six perfections

through the non-recurrence ('a-samudachara') of the

objective (' nimitta ') etc. In that case there will be nothing to

proclaim the contrast between the 'sravaka' and the

bodhisattva. The bodhisattvas must practise the six

perfections under all circumstances. In order to substantiate

it, the lord has shown the presence of all other 'paramitas'

(perfection) in every single 'paramita'. It is said in

Sarvadharma-vaipulya; "0 Maitreya! about this acquisition of

the six perfections which has been spoken of for the

enlightenment of bodhisattvas, the ignorant persons would

say that the bodhisattvas should be well instructed in the

perfection of wisdom ('prajfiii-paramita') alone, of what avail

is his in.terest in other 'paramitas'? They regard the other

'paramitas as 'stained'. Then, 0 Ajita! do you take that


Kasiraja (the king of KaSi) to be a fool Oit. of tainted wisdom)

who gave away pieces of his flesh to the falcon in lieu of that

of the pigeon? 'No Lord' replied Maitreya. The Lord continued,

'0 Maitreya! Whatever 'kusal-mulas' (root-merits) equipped

with six perfections were earned by me while practising the

conduct of the bodhisattvas, did they do any harm to me? 'No

lord!' replied Maitreya. The lord said, '0 Ajita!' you also

practised perfect 'dana' paramita (the perfection of giving)

for sixty aeons ('kalpas') and equally practised 'prajiiaparamita'

(the perfection of Wisdom) for sixty 'kalpas'. Even

then, these ignorant persons will say that a single path like

that of 'sunyata alone will lead to enlightenment (bodhi).

Such a person will become impure of conduct ('charya') or

practice." While practising 'sunyata' alone they will enter

into the 'sravaka 's' 'nirval)a'. Therefore, 'prajiia must be

practised with 'upayaya'.

Acharya Nagarjunapada says in Siitra-sammuchaya; " A

bodhisattva should not practise serious dharmas without the

skill of means ('upayaya')." Herein, the acharya has

expounded what he got from sources like Arya Vimalakirtinirdesa

etc. and not that these are the words of Acharya

Nagarjunapada (himself). It is not proper for learned

observors to forsake the Lord's words which comprise

scriptures ('agama') and logic ('yukti') and accept the words

of ignorant fools. It is said in Arya Ratna-kuta: "Siinyata which

comprises the blessing of omnipotence ,and is accompanied

by such 'kusalas' (merits) as giving ('dana') etc. should be

meditated upon as such." And again; "0 Kasyapa! just as the

king performs all his functions with the assistance of his

minister, so also does the 'prajiia' of the bodhisattvas

equipped with the skill of 'upayaya' perform all the tasks of

lord Buddha."

He who practises 'sunyata' only will not have entry into

'nirval)a'. The lord has said in Arya Tathagata-guhya siitra;

"One should not practise 'ekanta-nirlambana-chitta', i.e. th~

solitary propless mind; skill in means ('upayaya ') should also

be practised." To illustrate this, it is added, "0 Kulaputra! just


as fire bums only with its requisite material ('upadana') and is

quietened in its absence, so also the mind is fired by its prop

('alambana') and becomes quietened in its absence. The

bodhisattva, with his 'prajiia-paramita' (perfection of

wisdom) honed and equipped with the skill of 'upayaya'

knows how to calm down 'alambana' but will not calm down

the one with benificent roots. In him no 'klesalambana' (the

prop of mental defilements) arises but he is established in the

'prop of perfection' ('paramita-alambana') instead. He

examines the 'alambana' of 'sunyata' but will look to

'mahakarut)a' (great compassion) as the 'alambana' for all

sattvas. In this way, '0 Kulaputra! the bodhisattva attains the

mastery of 'alambana' with his refined perfection of

'prajiia'(wisdom) and the skill of 'upayaya' (means)." So

saying in detail, he further amplifies; "The bodhisattva has no

such 'alambana' as is not meant for the accumulation of the

knowledge of the reality of things, that is, Buddhas 'jiiana'

The bodhisattva, all whose 'alambanas' get transformed into

supreme enlightenment, alone is skilful in 'upayaya' and

such a one sees all 'dharmas' as embracing 'bodhi'. Even

then, 0 Kulaputra! there is nothing in the three thousand or

many thousands of 'loka-dhatus' (wordly components) which

is not meant for the 'sattvas' enjoyment. 0 Kulaputra! there is

no such 'alambana' which the skilful-in-effort bodhisattva

does not consider useful for his enlightenment." Thus said at

length. In this manner, the acquisition of wisdom ('prajiia')

and means ('upayaya') by bodhisattvas has been indicated in

an unlimited number of sutras. If he himself cannot start the

valorous effort of accumulating 'punya' collection through

'dana' etc. it is not proper for him to preach it to others as that

would be tantamount to deceiving both himself and others.

It has been propounded in the 'yukti' (literature of logic)

and 'agama' (scripture) that the bodhisattvas, after 'bhutaexamination'

should make a collection of such 'punya'

accumulations as 'dana' etc. So the wise ones have said that

one should forsake like poison the words of egotistical, halfread

persons and act in accordance with the nectar like words


of such learned scholars as Acharya Nagarjuna and others by

generating mahakaruQa for all 'mahasattvas' remaining

unattached as a magician and should endeavour to uplift the

whole world through the transformation of all beneficient

practices like 'dana' etc. into 'anuttra-samyaka-sambodhi'

(transcendental, supreme enlightenment). It has been said in

Arya Dharma-samgiti, ''Just as a magician endeavours to undo

his own creation and being already aware of its illusionary

aspect, is unattached to it, so also the bodhisattva, conscious

of illusionary nature of the three states of existence

('tribhava') past, present and future and having attained

perfect enlightenment is ready (to do his duty) towards the

world because he already knows its reality."

In this way, he who constantly practises 'prajii.a' and

'upayaya' with reverence, his mental emanations having

gradually matured, more and more of extremely pure

'ksar:ta'76 is generated for him. His meditation on the meaning

of things having attained excellence, he becomes aware of

the extremely clear 'dharma dhatu'77 (the true essence of

things) devoid of all fictionality ('kalpana-jala'). He attains

traqscendental knowledge as clear as the calm, windless

lamp. He then achieves the 'alambana' of the ultimate of

things and enters the 'darasana marga'. He attains the first

'bhumi' (stage). After refining the succeeding stages one after

another and removing all accumulated 'avarr:tas' like

(refining) gold, attains unattached and unassailable 'jii.ana'

and reaches 'Buddha bhumi' (the stage of Buddhahood), the

foundation of all virtue; also he obtains 'alambana' in the

shape of the fulfilment of his work. Therefore, those who

desire 'Buddha-hood' should endeavour to tread the Middle


May all people a~tain the Middle path as the result of

whatever 'punya' (merit) I may have earned by indicating the

'madhya marga' (middle path) in this way.

Good people, after removing the dirt of jealousy etc.

remain insatiate, like the ocean with its waters and, after good

examination, continue accepting good words just as the


(royal) swan gladly weans milk from water.

Hence, the learned people, after overcoming the

prejudices of their minds, should accept good words from

even the ignorant.

Here ends tlie fmal Bhavanakrama composed by Acharya



1. Bhavanakrama - 'bhavana' is meditation; it consists of

visualisation and contemplation of a resolve, an object or an idea

and strictly meditating on it in accordance with vows undertaken;

the sequence of meditational process. For example, 'maitri',

'kai1JQ:i', 'mudita' and 'upekSa' are the four exalted states of the

mind. Also called 'brahma-vibara' the 'bhavana' of these four

leads the practitioner to 'samyaka' pratipatti or true realisation, his

mental deftlements having evaporated.

2. 'adikarmika' - a novice initiate who wishes to pursue the

bodhisattva path, of the four-fold tantra quadrangle in Mabayanakriya-

tantra, charya-tantra, yog-tantra and anuttar-tantra -

kriyatantra's standard text is Adikarma-pradeep which deals with

the rules of initiation and subsequent conduct as prescribed for an

'adikarmik bodhisattva'

3. sarvajiiata - the knowledge of the true nature of all phenomena,

that is, 'nissvabbavata'.

4. karllQa - compassion.

5. bodhichitta - enlightened mind.

6. pratipatti - perception, comprehension.

7. dharmah - disciplines, instructions, practices.

8. bhadanta - an honorific for a realised monk.

9. p'iirvangama- that which goes ahead of a thing; precursor, forerunner.

10. as at 9 above.

11. adhi~thana - object of contemplation, focal idea to reflect on.

12. sambhara - accumulation, collection.

13. trividha dukha - three-fold suffering of bo_}y, mind and speech.

14. traidbatuka- beings living in the three worlds of humans, gods

and hell dwellers, the earth, the heavens, the hells.

15. pretas- disembodied spirits, 'preta-loka' is one of the six realms

of existence after death.

16. tiryaka - another realm of existence where one is born as a

dragging, crawling beast.

17. samadhana-chetsa- of composed mind.

18. p~ma - tranquillity.

19. anusaya - impurity.generated by feelings of attachment, lust etc.

20. kamavaclt~ra- one who always wanders in the realm of desire or

kama; it is also equated with, 'deva-loka' by some as the gods

always dwell in 'kama'.

21. defilements born of actions.

22. suffering born of samskaras.


23. chitta-samara - a mental attitude of total equality for all beings; it

is achieved through the practice of 'paratma-samatii' or by

exchanging your own self with others.

24. sama-pravritta - equitably disposed towards all; equal concern,

25. ni~panna - complete, full, equanimous.

26. bodhichitta - a mind that aspires after bodhi or the enlightenment

of a bodhisattva.

27. prarthniikaram- importunate, solicitous.

28. samyaka-sambodhi - the ultimate or correct knowledge of reality;

true cognition of 'bhuta-tathata'.

29. par-samadiipana- acquiring by others.

30. pratipatti - attainment of supreme knowledge.

31. vajra-ratna - adamantine gem; supreme, impenetrable substance.

32. chittotapada - generating the mind, inducing it towards


33. gu~- qualities.

34. §ravaka - Itt. hearer.

35. pratyeka-buddha - lit. solitary realiser.

36. paramitii - perfection

37. upayaya- means, practice.

38. diina-paramita- perfection of giving.

39. parjiia-paramita - perfection of wisdom.

40. praQidhi- vow, fixing the mind with determination.

41. ku§ala-mula- practices that lead to meritorious action, root-merit.

42. anumodana - commending.

43. siidharaQani- common, ordinary.

44. Buddha-dharma - pratices enjoined on a bodhisattva.

45. bodhi-sambhara - accumulation of the attributes of


46. vipiika - fruit, result in maturation of actions done.

47. iika§a-dhatu - the element of' space or sky.

48. buddha-k§etraQi - Buddha-fields, believed to be two dozen in

number; the Mahayana concept of the presence of more than one

Buddha simultaneously presiding in their own 'lokas' or worlds,

their 'k§etras' (fields) like the sukha-vati-vyuha of Amitabha


49. pranidhi-chitta - a mind fiXed on the goal of achieving bodhi.

50. Prasthan-chitta - a mind ready to travel on the path of bodhi.

51. samvar - vow.

52. sambhara - collection, accumulation.

53. kalyiil}a-mitra - jinas, bodhisattvas, realised ones, A kalyiil}a-mitra

is described as one who is capable of instructing in serious themes

and is equipped with extraordinary attributes, the foremost of


'kalyiQa-mitras' is Lord Buddha himself as revealed by him to

Ananda in the following words: 'mama hi Ananda

kalyilf)mitramaagmya 'jati-dbarmah sattvah 'jati-dhannama


54. ManjuSri as Ambara-raja; the story of.

55. aprama~- the four cordial virtues of 'maitri', 'karuQii', 'mudita'

and 'upek§a'- the 'brahma-viharas'- have been designated by

the scriptures as 'apramal}a', because they are limitless and

everlasting and they wash away the dirt of attachment, envy

jealousy and ill-will so that the bodhisattva may practise 'parahita'

or others' well-being.

56. samgraha-vastu- comprises the four-fold acquisition of love,

compassion, joy and detachement, the 'brahma-viharas'.

57. 'silpa' -craft.

58. upayaya - lit. approaching, coming near, means; it also refers to

compassion or 'bhuta-daya' and to that state of samadhi in which

'prajna' is born. In the latter state it is 'upayaya pratyaya'.

59. samgrah-vastu - see 56 above.

60. k§etra-pam'Udhi- purifk-ation of the (bodhisattva's) field.

61. bahu-paiivsra sampata- the wealth of a large family or entourage

of disciples.

62. sattva paripaka-nirmal}a - helping maturation of sattvas

meritorious acts.

63. samklesa - defilements.

64. samgrah-jiiana- the knowledge of cultivating 'maitri', karul}i,

'mudita and upekSa'.

65. parichheda - analysis, discrimination.

66. bhumi - stage, level.

67. dasa-bhumi- ten stages of~ bodhisattva's 'sadhana', 'mudita',

'vi mala', 'prabhakari', 'archi~mati', 'sudurjaya', 'abhimukti',

'durangma', 'achala', 'sadhumati' and 'dharma-megha'.

68. a~tama-bhumi - 'achala' or steadfast, the eighth stage of


69. vyuthana - the fourth of the five steps for the resolve to rise up

from a balanced 'dhyana' after a desired span of time, because

the first dhyana is not without its inherent shortcomings; the

resolve to rise ahove these is 'vyuthana'.

70. achala- the eighth 'bhumi' in which the seeker fully understands

the nissvabhavata of things and is not affected by the pleasures of

the body, the mind and the speech, he remains 'achala',

immovable, steadfast.

71. dharma-mukha-srota - the source of all dharma practice.

72. upasamhara - conclusion, finish.


73. ksanti - one of the six perfections; in this context it is 'faith' -

'sradha' with 'ruchi' or interest in the pursuit of vows.

74. dasa-bala - an epithet of lord Buddha who possessed ten

singularly distinct powers; knowledge of all places, knowledge of

all time, knowledge of all the different spheres, knowledge of all

different kinds of emancipation, knowledge of other's conduct,

knowledge of the good and evil force of karma, knowledge of the

obstacles from klesas and the absorption of dhyana, knowledge of

previous lives; has pure, divine eyes and is capable of destroying

all defilements.

75. chatur-vaisarda - four great attributes ascribed to Lord Buddha;

1. his body was 'anasrva', pure, made up of flawless substances

and attributes; 2. he could assume unlimited 'rupakayas' and

bodies simultaneously at different places, 3. his powers were

immeasurable. 4. his glory and effulgence had no bounds.

76. santi-vimoksa-vihara - the state of calm abiding.

77. jfiana-mukhachintyta - a state of peace and steadiness born of


78. dharmata - the nature of dharmas or, all phenomena which is

'nissvabhavata' or 'sunyata'.

79. tathagata - one who has realised the 'tathata' or 'as it-ness' of

things, the 'as-it-ness' being their insubstantial non-true existence;

hence 'tathata' is identical with 'paramartha satya'.

80. dharma-dhatu- the essence of all 'dharmata' which is 'sunyata';

it is indentical with 'bhuta-koti', 'tathata' etc. 'dhatu' comprises

factors which join up to produce a phenomena and there are

eighteen 'dhatus' -six senses, six object, six cognitions. Of the six

object - dhatus the last is 'dharma-dhatu', which in itself

comprises sixty four dharmas.

81. sarvadharma sunyata - the emptiness of all phenomena.

82. sarva-dharmanuplabdhi - the non-existence of all phenomena.

83. avikalpa-dharmata - to understand the true nature of

phenomena; 'vikalpa' is defined as 'asrava partantra' or unclean

dependent as it is born of 'partyayas'; to rise above it is 'anasrava

vikalpa' or the unblemished alternative or 'avikalpa', the opposite

of 'vikalpa'.

84. apramaoata - There are ten dharmas of a handsome mind

(sobhana chaitska); 'sradha' 'apramada', 'prasrabdhi', 'apeksa',

'hri' 'apatrapa' 'alobha' 'advesa' 'maitri' and 'ahimsa'.

'Apramapa' is one of.the f-our divisions of 'sobhana chaitsika' and

comprises 'karuoa' and 'mudita'; 'apramaoata' is handsome,

inimitable quality or nature.

85. abhinirhara --accumulation, appropriation; the various 'bhumis'


are also called 'viharas' because the bodhisattvas roam about in

them for the 'abhinirhara' of 'ku8ala' or merit.

86. prabha-lllalJ.Qala - halo, aura of light around a divine being.

87. svaranga-vi§udhi - refinement of speech, in mantra recitation.

88. nirvikalpa - undifferentiated, transcendental without an

alternative or 'vikalpa'.

89. paryanta-gami - unlimited, extending in all directions, infinite.

90. aparyanta - limitless.

91. aparyanta - eternal

92. apramaQ.a-k§etra - the fields of illimitable compassion of a


93. apramaQ.a-sattva - unlimited hordes of sentient beings.

94. apramaQ.a dharma-vibhaktata - illimitable variety and division of

dharmas and their analyses.

95. abhinirhara dwara - door or entrance to the accumulation of


96. abhinirhara karma - action that leads to accumulation of karma.

97. adhimukti- final release from cyclic existence; also means 'faith'

or '§raddha'.

98. avabodha - true enlightenment or knowledge of the ultimate

truth of all phenomena.

99. sarvajfia-jfianahhinirhara - the garnering of the knowledge of

'sarvajfiata' or of the ultimate truth of things, their 'nissvabhavata'.

100. parinirvaQ.a - release from cyclic existence.

101. pratisrabdhi- retardation.

102. avaran -upper crust, cover or lid of 'avidya' (ignorance) or

'pratitya' (the apparent) which hinders cognition of the reality or

'yathabhuta jfiana' of phenomena.

103. pratikSepa karma- contrary, contradictory action; neglecting etc.

104. §obhana samjfia- fair, correct cognition.

105. asobhana ~amjna- incorrect, ugly, unbecoming cognition.

106. pratikSapti- retards, obstructs.

107. samudagama - cultivation, generation.

108. upayaya-paramita- perfection of 'karuQ.ii' or compassion.

109. Ajit- name of a bodhisattva.

110. Kasiraja- King 'Sivi' of VariiQ.asi whose compassion was put to

test by god Indra; the latter in the guise a of preying falcon,

pounced on a pigeon; he offered to cut a piece of his own flesh as

compensation to the falcon if it released its prey from its talons;

when put in the scales the pigeon grew heavier and heavier in

weight and the compassionate king went on slicing pieces of his

flesh; finally, the god resumed his original form, blessed and

congratulated Kasiraja and made him whole before disappearing.


111. Maitreya - a bodhisattva.

112. Kalpa - cosmic period; a fabulous period of time comprising

thousando; of years of mortals' time calculation; at the end of a

'kalpa', the world is annihilated.

113. naya - system or path; Mahayana consists of two 'nayas';

'paramita-naya' and 'mantra-naya'. It is said that Lord Buddha

taught the former at gridhra-kuta and the latter at 'gri-parvata'.

114. Paryavasna- end, conclusion.

115. pratistbapita - installed, established.

116. rupa-kaya - material form; also called 'nirmaQa-kaya', the

historical form of 'siikyamuni' which he assumed for the world.

117. ~tra- field, domain.

118. parivara - progeny, continuum, entourage.

119. viparyiisa- contrariety, delusion which makes one believe as real

or true what is unreal or untrue.

120. anta - limit.

121. samaropa- superimposition.

122. apavada - refutation, negation, contradiction. ..

123. lakgaQa - attributes, marks, signs; the 32 ordinary and 80 special

marks of Lord Buddha.

124. anuvyanjana- expression.

125. abhisamaya- true 'jnana'; it has two stages; 'dharma-~ti' i.e.

passion for dharma and 'dharma-dargana' or experiencing


126. dharma-kaya - the subtle form of Lord Buddha which is incorporeal,

indescribable 'paramarthic' in essence and is the

equivalent to •gunyatii'.

127. sambhava- generation, creation.

128. udagl"'.thaQa - grasping, taking up, holding onto.

129. unmarga- deviation, wrong road.

130. vyapadega - appellation, designation.

131. samadhi- a state of meditational absorption; 'samyaka adheiyte

ekagri-kriyate' 'vikgepana'.

132. srutamayi - listening to and reading of scriptures etc.

133. agama - collection of scriptures.

134. chintiimayi - reflective, contemplative.

135. neetiirtha - intelligible meaning.

136. neyartha - dubious meaning.

137. bhutiirtha - that which has actually happened, real facts.

138. abhutiirtha - not a fact.

139. vichikitsa - doubt, uncertainty.

140. tirthika- those belonging to non-buddhistic schools of thought

like 'samkhya', 'vaise~ika', 'nirgrantha' and 'ajivakas'.


141. nairiitamya- the theory of non-soul; there is no permanent entity

as 'atma'.

142. anutpad- non-generation, non-creation.

143. utpada - generation, creation.

144. abhinive5a - adherence to, relying on.

145. yoni5a- abstract meditation by which one realises 'anitya' and


146. yoni - path.

1:47. yonisa prichha - inquiring into the paramarthic state of


148. chakara-mukha- empty.

149. abhava-mukha- non-existent by nature.

150. isvara - the vedic concept of a supreme, omnipotent god.

151. kram5a- one after the other.

152. nirapekSattvata - owing to independence.

153. artha-kriya- action performed with a special purpose; it aims at

the attainment of the 'artha' (objective) and the giving up of the

'anartha' (non-essential).

154. samaropa - superimposition.

155. asata - that which is not.

156. akasa - space, void, Nagarjuna believed it to be beyond both

'bhava' and 'abhava'

157. nirodh -lit. 'cessation', the third of the four 'arya-saty.JS', it too is

beyond bhava and 'abhava'.

158. avyavadhana - no-interval or interim.

159. kSaQa - lit. 'moment'.

160. pinda - mass, body.

161. savayava - lit. 'with limbs'. alive active.

162. samvriti satya - apparent but illusory truth as distinguished from

'paramartha satya' or the ultimate truth of things.

163. vijiiana-cognition; skandha - lit. (heap), bundle, aggregate,

'vijnana' skandha' is one of the five such aggregates, the other

four being those of 'riipa', 'vedana', 'samjna' and 'samskara'.

164. aleeka - falsehood, meaningless.

165. maya - delusion.

166. nirabhil~ - without bias.

167. pratipatti- acquisition, comprehension, meditative realisation.

168. prithvi-kritsna - the first of the ten 'kritsnas'; the sanskrit 'kritsna'

becomes 'kasana' in pali, thus 'prithvi kritsna' generally came to

be called 'prithvi kasana' or 'kasina'; Pali 'patthvi kasana'; there

are forty 'kannasthanas', ten krisnas, ten a5ubhas, ten 'anusmritis'

four 'brahma-viharas', four 'arupya', one 'samjiia' and one

'vyuthana'. Why are 'kritsnas' so called? Because they attract the


meditative aspecto; of the 'kritsna' (or entire) mind (chitta).

In 'prithvi kritsna ', the first of the eight dhyanas, the object of

concentration is an earthen pot at a lonenly place, extending the

sadhaka's reflective process to all names and synonyms of earth

('prithvi'); the exercise of dhyana through 'kritsna' is called


169. 'samatha'- a state of total tranquillity; calm abiding.

170. samahita - one of a sedate mind; meditative equipoise; balanced.

171. adhivasana - commending, awareness.

172. veerya - persevering effort.

173. sila- conduct, to he cultivated as one of the six perfections.

174. papa-desana- indicating, confessing, stating, one's sins or faults,

it is the first step in bodhicharya.

175. punyanumodana - commending the qualities of virtuous living.

176. padmasana - sitting crosslegged in lotus posture; one of the more

comfortable 'asanas' or postures for meditation.

177. viksepa do~a- distraction; ignorance which leads to illusionary

views; one of the 'klesa-mahabhaumikas'.

178. alambana - an apparent, palable mental prop or support for

sadhana; for example, a 'ghata' (piture) as an accessory aid for


179. sunyata is of 18 types (though according to Haribhadra, it is of 20

types) as follows; adhyatma sunyata, bahirdha, sunyata-sunyata,

maha, paramartha, samskrita, asamskrita, atyanta, anavaragra,

prakriti, sarvadharma, laksaQa, upalambha, abhava-svabhava,

bhava, abhava, svabhava and parabhava 'sunyata'.

180. vastubheda- is of two kinds; 'suddha' and 'parikalpita'. The first

is paramartha state and the second a deviation from it being based

on 'kalpana' or imagination.

181. abhidharma- the third 'pitaka' or basket of Lord Buddha's word,

so called because of its three attributes of 'abhiksQyiita (ability to

elucidate many facets of the some dharma), 'abhibhavata' (ability

to refute other beliefs), and 'abhigatita' (ability to offer a tangible

exposition of the tenets of Buddha-dharma).

182. styana - lassitude.

183. akarmaQyata - do-nothing-ness; cowardice.

184. samvega- detachment.

185. abhisamskara - refining, variation.

186. sva-rasa-viihi - of its own volition.

187. abhoga - effort.

188. satyabhoga - true effort.

189. sama-pravritti - 'sama' is second of the five steps by which

complete control over first dhyana is achieved; tendem.:y towards


'sama' or balance.

190. viksepa- one of the ten 'klesa-mahabhaumikas'; described as

'klista-samadhi' or complicated, confused samadhi.

191. samanvaharana- withdrawal of the senses from the world.

192. do~a - fault, shortcoming.

193. kausidya- sloth, it is the opposite of 'veerya'.

194. alambana sampramo~a - forsaking the (meditational) prop or


195. laya- mental lethargy, inert absorption.

196. audhatya - insolence, arrogance.

197. anabhoga- effortless.

198. abhoga - effort.

199. prahana samskara- tendency to eradicate.

200. sraddha- faith; it is called 'chitta-prasada'.

201. chhanda - the desire to act, perform, it has been defined as


202. vyayama - hard work, industriousness.

203. prasrabdhi - activeness of body and mind in yoga-sadhana.

204. smriti - non-forgetfulness.

205. samprajfiiiya - awareness, mental alertness.

206. chetana - it is defined as that consciousness which refines the


207. upekSa - detachment.

208. abhisamaya pratyaya -factors that lead to 'samyaka' or true

jiiana; comprises two parts; 'dharma-ksanti' or generation of

interest (ruchi) in dharma and 'dharma-jiiana' or the actual

knowledge of (or personally experienced) dharma.

209. anabhoga - without effort.

210. abhoga- effort, it is also defined as 'anyayana mansikara' or

contemplation of other paths.

211. riddhi - prosperity, affluenc~.

212. karmaQyata- skill, the ability to perform.

213. arupi-samapatti - absorption in the formless aspect in dharma

meditation, 'samiipatti loka' consists of 'rupa-loka' and 'arupaloka',

the sattvas possessing healthy, beautiful bodies in the

former and being without form in the latter; their realisation is in

accordance with the state of 'samapatti'.

214. vimokSa- deliverance, release.

215. vedana- feeling; the second of the five 'skandhas'.

216. anagamya- inaccessible, undefined.

217. prathama dhyana- 'samadhi' is of two types; 'upachara' and

'arpaQii'; of forty 'karma-sthanas' ten help in achieving

'upachara' or what may be called 'peripheral samiidhi'; the


remaining thirty 'karmasthiinas' help in attaining 'arpaQi' or

'absolute samadhi.

The first dhyana is achieved through five steps; 1. avarjana -

ftxing the mind in meditation for a specified period. 2. 'sama'- to

ftx dhyina in the five aspects of 'vitarka', 'vichara' 'priti', 'sukha'

and 'ekagrata'. 3. 'adhi~ana' - the ability to ftx dhyana in a trice

(ten times 'sphota' or clicking of fingers). 4. 'vyuthana'- ability

to rise up from dhyana after a specified period; 5. 'pratyaveksana'

ability to analyse and observe dearly what occurs from dhyana.

218. abhibhava - dominant, powerful.

219. ayatana- door, entrance.

220. akara - form.

221. atma-samjfia - body consciousness.

222. udreka - excessive, overwhelming.

223. chitta-matra - lit. 'mind only'; term used as a synonym of

yogachara school.

224. tathata- lit. 'such-ness', things as they are in the ultimate

analysis; term used as the equivalent to paramar.tha tattva,

'supreme enlightenment, 'sunyata' etc.

225. nirabhisa - lit. 'without splendour', formless; without fallacious


226. nairatmya-jfiana - the knowledge of the non- self doctrine of

dharmas, of the ultimately non-substantial nature of things.

227. avyatireka - dissimilarity; difference.

228. advya jfiana - the knowledge of the non-duality of things;

ultimate 'jfiana'.

229. paramatattva - ultimate essence; supreme truth of all


230. samayaka joana - correct or right knowledge.

231. vaikalya - bafflement; confusion.

232. asamjfii samapatti - meditational equipoise or samadhi attainable

by the yogi in the fourth Dhyana, or release; in fact, the result of

this 'samapatti' is not 'utpatti' but 'nirodha' like a 'seni' or bridge

over a river serving to retard the flow.

233. raga - vehement desire; attachment.

234. timira-do~a - clouded eyesight; kind of blindness; catract; one

who suffers from it is called 'taimarika'.

235. yuganadha - united, two-fold.

236. upalambha - acquirement.

237. anupalambha - non-acquirement.

238. avasthana lakSQa - staidness.

239. anabhoga- satiety.

240. prapancha - deceit; fraud.


241. bhava- comprises two things; 'vyavahira-akara' and 'dharmatrata

guna, i.e. change due to change of 'avastha' or situation in a

dharma and the basic quality or characteristic of a dharma.

242. a-bhava- also of two kindo;; 'buddhi piirvaka' and 'abuddhipiirvaka'

i.e. the is-not-ness of a thing due it, extinction and the act

of constant extinction.

243. tri-kiila - past, present and future.

244. vyapattva - permeableness.

245. vyapaka - pervading.

246. vyapya - permeable.

247. jiieyavaraQll - cover of ignorance which impedes the dawn of


248. kJegiivaraQa - cover of mental defilements.

249. samvriti -two types of truth -the one that is apparent but is not

the truth and the one that is not apparent but is the ultimate truth

- 'samvriti satya' and 'paramartha satya'; the first is aid to

discover the latter.

250. samkalpa, vikalpa -will, counter-will, premise, counter-premise.

251. ayoniga mansikara- an unmeditational mentalisation wherein

'anitya' is not viewed as 'anitya' etc.

252. ~i-paryuthhiina - distraction of eyes or sight from dhyana.

253. viparyiisa - reversion; overthrow.

254. vijiiiina - cognitive insight.

255. achintya - Itt. 'oeyond thinking', subtle, un-definable.

256. abhisamaya-gotra buddhi - 'gotra' is caste or class; the gotra is

dedded in accordance with the 'subha' and 'asubha' seeds or the

quantity of 'gunas' of a practitioner; of the five 'gotras'

enumerated in Mahavyutpatti 'sravakayana abhisamaya gotra' is

the first; 'abhisamya' means 'seeing the satyas in 'anasrava' or

pure form.

257. niryiiQll - going out, departure, release.

258. a-niryiiQll - non-release.

259. vyavartana - averting; turning away from.

260. kudristi - lit. bad sight; heterodox, philosophical doctrine.

261. skandha- lit. 'heap' five aggregates of the world of names or

forms; the five 'skandhas' are 'rupa', 'vedana', 'samjiia',

'samskiira' and 'vijniina'.

262. pudgala nairiitmya - non-self nature of beings.

263. trai-dhatuka - the concept of the division of the world into the

three aggregates of 'kiima-dhatu', 'riipa-dhatu' and 'ariipa-dhatu'

- the world of desire, the world of forms, the world without

forms; 'dhatu' means aggregates of the same class.

264. vijiiapti- it is 'chitta', 'manasa', 'vijnana'; according to


Vijiianavada, 'trai-dhatuka is also a 'vikalpa' of the mind ('chitta');

this 'vikalpa' is called 'vijiiana'; all dharmas and the imagined

'self' are the result of 'vijiiana' or 'vijiiapti'.

265. vijiiana-vadi - one who believes in the yogachara or vijiianavada

school; he regards 'vijiiana', i.e. 'chitta' 'manasa' and

'buddhi' as the only 'satya' (true) 'padartha' (thing), because

'buddhi' alone can observe all things to be in-substantial.

266. anta- end, boundary, limits; the two 'antas' are the 'beginning'

and the 'end'.

267. utpada-bhang - generation, creation, - break in.

268. pratitya-samutpada - dependent origination, chain of causation

which brings about an uninterrupted flux of phenomena; it is

depicted as a wheel with twelve spokes, the twelve 'nidanas'

(links) of creation.

269. jagata -from the root 'gama' (gachha) to go; hence 'jagata' is

that which moves, the entire world of beings and things.

270. jiiana-maya - illusion generated by knowledge.

271. nirmita, nirmiiQa - created; the first of the four-fold wealth of the

fruits of 'dharma-kaya' and it consists of the generation of great

'bahya sampata' (material prosperity).

272. kautiihalama - curiosity, unusual phenomena, curious frivolity.

273. sambodhi - true enlightenment.

274. tri-bhava - the three states ('bhavas') in which a pudgala

functions- 'ateeta bhava' (past), 'pratyutpanna bhava' (present)

and 'anagata. bhava' (future).

275. anabhisamskiira - immaculate state.

276. adhimukti bhumi - the first of the ten stages of a bodhisattva; in

this he realises 'pudgal nairatmya' and his 'dri~ti' becomes pure.

277. adhimukti - devotion; devotional surrender is the root of a

bodhisattva's 'adhimukti'.

278. vedana- feeling, it arises from touch or contact ('sparsa'); there

are five bodily ('kayiki') 'vedanas' born of the five senses, one

mental ('chaitski') or 'vedanas' born of the mind.

279. samjiia- that state of consciousness through 'sukha-dukha' joy

and suffering - when one sees objects as they are.

280. samskara - the fourth 'skandha' the volitional aspect of

aggregates; lit. 'mental constituents' gathered from previous lives

through good and bad karma.

281. nirodha - cessation.

282. samudaya - generation, aggregation.

283. bhadracharya - conduct behoving a noble practitioner.

284. dana - giving; one of the six perfections.

285. anuttara samyaka-sambodhi - supreme transcendental enlightenGLOSSARY-

I 113


286. tri-siksa' -also called 'visuddhi marga, comprising 'sila-siksa',

'samadhi sikSa' and 'prajna'- teachings on conduct, meditation

and wisdom.

287. purva-g:imini - leading.

288. hetu- cause, when one 'dharma' is the direct cause of another

'dharma' (phemenon), it is called 'hetu pratyaya', causal factor.

289. pratyaya- factor; its four types are, 'hetu pratyaya', 'samanantar

pratyaya', 'alambana pratyaya' and 'adhipati pratyaya'.

290. nidana - links; twelve links of causation.

291. purvangma - forerunner.

292. ayatana - entrance, door, there are twelve 'ayatanas'.

293. riipa-kaya- also called 'nirmai;la kaya', the Buddha's physical

body with which he serves the cause of the 'sattvas' well-being,

preaches 'dhyana', 'samadhi', 'dana', 'sila', 'prajiia' etc.; it is

endless in number, the historical sakyamuni having been one

such emanation.

294. samjna - awareness of an object.

295. akSaya - perpetual.

296. dwadasavastha vise~a- twelve special stages of 'pratitya samutpada'

mentioned by the Lord in Dvadasanga-siitra.

297. bhiimis- stages of a boddhisattva's 'sadhana'.

298. Buddha-bhiimi - the final stage of supreme absorption and

enlightenment which is both immeasurable and unlimited.

299. driQhatar adhimukti - firmer faith.

300. mara- the evil one, the tempter, the arch demon who tries to

wean away a 'sadhaka' from his path. He was overcome by Lord

Buddha during his final moments of enlightenment.

301. dharaQi - mystic 'mantras' adopted from the siitra; prayers

addressed to Buddha, bodhisattvas and Tara; has protective

potency through ritualistic practice during disease and famine etc.

302. vimokSa - release, emancipation.

303. abhijiia - supernatural faculty of Buddhas and boddhisattvas of

six kinds taking any form at will; hearing upto any distance; seeing

upto any distance; penetrating others' thoughts, knowing

everybody's antecedents; freedom from the fear of cyclic rounds.

304. mridu- one of the three types of 'kSanti' or 'ruchi' (interest) in

the discovery of the meaning of 'arya satyas'; such interest is born

from 'murdhana' or 'si~' (the top) of four 'kusala mulas' (rootmerits).

305. madhya - as above (304).

306. adhimatra - as above (304).

307. adhimatrata- the generation of 'laukika agradharmas' which are


transitory and unclean in content and have their support in

'dukha' born of desires ('kamapta dukha').

308. nirvedha-bhiigiya - the capacity to properly probe and analyse

'satyas' and destroy all doubts; so called owing to the probing

faculty or the power to pirece being unassailable.

309. u~magata- the fire (u~ma) which bums away the kle§a fuel;

considered to be one of the root merits ('ku§ala mula').

310. murdhana- it is synonymous with 'praka~a· or upward rise,

generates 'k§anti' (interest), the apex of four 'ku§ala miilas'.

311. vridhiiloka samadhi- enhanced-light stage of meditation.

312. kgiinti-nirvedhiya- capable of being analysed through 'k§anti'.

313. eka-de§a-prav~ samiidhi - medatational state of one-pointedness.

(Note: the four 'nirvedha-bhiigiya' are the four 'ku§ala-mulas',

u~magata ••• m urdhana.' • ksanti. (' ruchi ') • agradharmas.;

'agrardharma's are dharmas pertaining to 'Agra-yiina' or


314. agradharma nirvedha-bhiigiya- the faL-ulty of pJ3)bing into and

pursuing the boddhisattva 's dharmas.

315. anantarya samadhi- innermost absorption in 'anantarya miirga'

or 'pramar;ta', the yogi first realises the truth about 'kiimadhatu'

and in the very fir..1 moment is shorn of doubt.

316. angiini- components, parts; also the synonym of 'hetu' (cause).

317. agradharma- the charya or the conduct of the boddhisattva.

318. dar§ana-miirg- the path of constant practice which refines one's

vision but does not totally uproot attachment and envy; the yogi

rises up from the 'dar§na miirga' to enter the bhavanii miirga;

dar§ana marga initiates the yogi into the search for the meaning of

the four noble truths with the resolve: I will know.

319. pramuditii- joyousness.

320. samudiigamatii - arising, generation.

321. dharmadhiitu- also called 'dharmiiyatana', 'vedana skandha',

'samjiiii', 'samsakiira' and 'avijiiapti' and the three 'asamskrita'these

seven constitute 'dharmadhiitu'.

322. dvitiya bhumi- second stage of a boddhisattva's siidhanii.

323. angas - components.

324. a-samudachara - non-generation.

325. sutra-dhiiraQii - remembering spiritual teachings and oral

in!>1ructions by memorising them.

326. jalpa - frivolity of speech.

327. satyas- the noble truths of suffering, the cause af suffering, the

cessation of suffering and the way to non-suffering.

328. nimitta - it succeeds 'da!'Sna' practices, it is the seed result in the


'adhyatma' sense of initial cognition.

329. nirvatsaha -lazy, inactive.

330. nischhidra animittavihara - wandering in the state of un-diluted


331. dharma-deganii - instructions in dharma.

332. parylya - equivalence; factors.

333. nirukti - derivation.

334. samvida - insight, understanding.

335. buddha-kgetra - Buddha field.

336. parishata- 'pariviira', creatiQn, entourage.

337. nirmal}ll - the creation of extraordinary apparent objects; the

equivalent of 'maya' (illusion), 'svapna' (dream), 'marichika'

(mirage), 'bimba' (reflection); example: turning pebble into a gold


338. sattva-paripaka- maturation of the beings' well-being through

meritorious deeds.

339. loka-dhatu- consists of 'kiima-dhatu', 'riipa-dhatu' and 'ariipadhiitu'.

340. skandha-pari§uddhi - cleansing of the impurities born of five


341. nirmiiQa-va§ita- power of practising total 'nirmiil}ll'.

342. asakta - detached.

343. apratihata - invulnerable.

344. svayamabhu Buddha- 'iidi-buddha', this concept finds mention

in Kiiranda-vyuha siitra as the creator of the world; 'svayambhu'

or 'adinatha' was there before the world and from his samadhi he

produced the 'jagata'; Avalokite§vara was a 'sattva' of

'svayamabhu Buddha who helped create the world; the sun and

the moon were born out of Avalokite§vara's eyes, Mahesvara from

the forehead, Brahma from the shoulder and NariiyaQa from the


345. sambhoga-kiiyii - subtler than his nirmiir,la-kaya, this body of

Lord Buddha is very effulgent and ever emanates golden rays,

through this body the lord gave his Mahayana-siitra sermon on

Gridhra-kuta (Vulture Peak) and in Sukhavati.

346. nirmiiQa-kaya - the purely physical body of Lord Buddha in

which he manifests himself for ministering to the well-being of

'sattvas'; it can manifest itself in innumerable forms and the

historical Sakyamuni was one such.

347. dharma-kaya- the 'paramartha' or subtle body of Lord Buddha,

it is enternal ('ananta'), immeasurable ('aparmeya') and

indescriable (anirvachaniya); it is the same in the case of all the

Buddhas, everlasting ('nitya') true ('satya') and of unlimited


attributes ('ananta SU9a-yukta') it is the lord's. true body, the

equivalent of 'tathata', 'dhanna-dhatu', 'tathagata-garbha' etc.


1. Kumarabhuta- lit. 'one ever young'; one of the epithets of

Manju~ri. the bodhisattva of wisdom.

2. sarvajiiati- lit. 'omniscence'; in Mahayana parlance it denotes

the 'jiiiina' of the ultimate nature of all dharmas which is


3. hetu- lit. 'cause'; certain factors ('pratyaya') combine with the

main cause or 'hetu' to produce a certain result ('hetuphala').

4. pratigha - hindrance, obstruction.

5. nirapekSa-bhiiva - detachment.

6. abhriinta - unequivocal, not dubious.

7. avikala- steadfast.

8. hetu-pratyayas - causal factors; for example the seed could be

called the 'hetu' and the earth, the sun, the water, which help the

seed to sprout, are the 'pratyayas'.

9. vineya-jana- those to be instructed; pupils.

10. pariavasiina- end, termination.

11. sambhiira - accumulation, collection.

12. sattva-dhiitu- the world of sentient beings.

13. ayogriha - house made of lac.

14. pravritti- inclination, tendency.

15. sa~ra - the cyclic rounds of birth and death.

16. madhyastha-bhiiva - even-mindedness.

17. saralati- ease, felicity, simplicity.

18. chitta-santina - tendicies of mind.

19. trividha dukha- triple suffering; 'daihika' (bodily), 'daivika'

(destined) and 'bhautika' (worldly).

20. kiirpaQya - poverty, penury.

21. upaghiita- hurt, stroke, violation.

22. ku~ti- lit. 'faulty vision'; a heterodox philosophical vision.

23. prapiita - sheer fall, precipice.

24. vipariniima- ripening, transformation.

25. kiimiivachara- the sattva who roams about in 'kama-dhiitu' or

the realm of desires.

26. madhyapakSa - middle way.

27. the ten directions are; the four cardinal directions, four subsidiary

directions and zenith and nadir.

28. n~anna -complete.

29. ch~otpiida - generation of mind.

30. anuttar samyaka-sambodhi- transcendental enlightenment.

31. samvara- lit. 'detachment' or 'virati', the vows to practise ·~na•

and detachment.


32. ·~iJa-parivartan- a text on the subject of ·~iJa' transformation.

33. anu~aya -feeling or 'bhava' it is that which helps 'karma' to

ripen, the root of 'hhava' (birth) and 'punarbhava' (rebirth); lit. to

grow, to fructify.

34. udraka - known as Udraka-Rama-putra, a well-known ascetic to

whom prince Siddartha went after renouncing his home; not

satisfied with the answer to his questions by Ananda Kalama, the

first asectic he had approached, he repeated his queries to the

Samkhaya master, Udraka; not satisfied with his answers too,

Siddhartha went to the 'amthha' tree to meditate.

35. paryaya - synonym; equivalent.

36. Vinay- rule; Lord Buddha's words about rules and regulations of

conduct for 'Bhik~us· and others are collected in Vinay-pitaka.

37. dukha-skandha- dukha heaps.

38. anukiila - beneficial, efficacious.

39. cheevara- a buddhist monk's garment or cloak.

40. prakriti - diversion, disturbance.

41. prati~epa- repudiation, contradiction.

42. ~ravaka samvara- 'sravaka' vows.

43. pratividhana - precaution, prevention; counteracting.

44. parajika - the four parajika dharmas are stealing, killing,

unchastity and falsely claiming superhuman powers; one guilty of

these four.

45. dvada~anga- twelve points or aspects stressed in Lord Buddha's

discourses probably refers to 'Dvada~anga-siitra' which deals with

the exposition of the twelve 'angas' of 'pratitya-samutpada'.

46. neetartha siitra - intelligible siitras.

47. neyartha siitra - dubious of interpretation siitras.

48. sringataka - cross-ways; road junction; a point where several

roads meet.

49. bodhi-manda - adorned with bodhi.

50. paryanka - squatting posture; doubling of legs.

51. Bhataraka Vairochana- name of a Tathagata; 'bhattaraka' is an

honorific for a worship-worthy, venerable scholar; 'vairochana'

means the illuminator.

52. sukhasana - comfortable seat.

53. priti - peace and contentment of body and mind; it is of five

types; '~udrika' wbicb creates horripilation, '~al}ika', which is

like a lightning flash moment by moment; 'avakrantika', which

overwhelms like sea waves; 'avakranta' which disappears like sea

waves; 'udvega', which is full of tremendous force; 'sphuraoa',

which is long-lasting and permeates the whole hody.

54. geya - lit. 'that which can be sung', one of the metres of 'aryaGLOSSARY-

II 119

jati' 'chhandas'.

55. vyUaraJ}a- one of the nine 'angas' of 'sutra-pitaka'; herein Lord

Buddha foretold about the future degradation of 'bhikSus'.

56. gatha- lyrical ballads; stories of 'bhikSus' and bhikSunis in prose

and verse.

57. undana - highly elevating words of the Lord, collected into eight

parts of Udana-varga, also contains parables.

58. nidana - stories.

59. avadana - lit. 'biography', contains the lives of great buddhist


60. iti-virttaka- divided into 112 divisions in mixed prose and verse,

contain the teachings of the Lord in earlier times.

61. jataka- about 550 tales of Buddha's previous lives.

62. Vaipulya - comprises nine important Mahayana siitras;

'Astasahsrika prajiia paramita, 'Saddharma pundrika', 'Lalitavistara

', 'Lankavatara '; 'Suvan_1a-prabha~a', 'Ganda-vyuha',

'Tathagata-guhyaka', 'Samadhiraja' and 'Da5a-bhumi5vara', these

are called 'Vaipulya-sutras owing to their comprehensiveness


63. adbhuta dharma - one of the nine 'angas' of dharma literature;

contains descriptions of the miracles and mysteries of Tathagata.

64. upadesa-varga- comprises the Lord's discourses.

65. kiya-prasrabdhi - hodily peace.

66. vyiseka - diversion, disturbance.

67. pudgala dharmas- individual tendencies.

68. pancha-skandha - 'skandha' means a heap, a group or

'samudaya'; the five mental tendencies: 'rupa' (form

comprising physical tendencies), 'vedana' (feeling), 'samjiia'

(cognition), 'samskara' (collection of mental aggregates)

and 'vijiiana'(knowledge of external things and internal


69. dvadasayatanas- 'ayatana' is qefined as 'ayama tanoti iti'

'ayatana', 'ayama' means 'pravesalma' or entrance, the twelve

(dvadasa) entrances (ayatanas) are the six senses and six sense

ohje<.ts; eye, e-c~r, nose, ton!,>ue, touch, intellect and form, sound,

smell, taste, touch, dharmas (not within the ambit of external


70. a~da5a dhatu - six sense objects, six senses and six cognitions.

71. chitta-vipathana svabhiva- the nature of appearances in the


72. sisrava - those which produce unclean 'dharmas'.

73. anasrava - clean.

74. vedana - feeling.


75. samjiia - consciousness, cognition.

76. samskara - mental aggregates.

77. vijiiina - special cognition.

78. parihara - relinquishment, giving up.

79. kalpana- imagination, fictional mind.

80. ar.u;J.i - tinder stick for producing fire.

81. animitta yoga- 'dhyana' leads to 'vimokSa' and 'vimok§a' leads

to yoga; in each stage one power is attained; the first stage is

'§unyatii' and the second is 'animitta'.

82. nimimittatii - the awareness of the emptiness of phenomena.

83. aprat~thata dhyiina - disturbed meditation, without fixation on

'n1pa' and 'samsiira'.

84. anupalambha dhyiina - non-perceptive meditation.

85. prachiira - menifestation, instigation.

86. anabhisamskara-viihitii - an approach of natural ease.

87. bhoga- taste, enjoyment.

88. abhoga - effort.

89. prahara -lit. 'stroke', division of time, about one eighth part

of a day.

90. iirya-bhadracharyii - the routine conduct of a noble being.

91. anapagati- non-falling down, non-deviation, non-deflection.

92. paripaka - maturation.

93. Ka§iraja probably refers to the story of 'sivi' the king of ViiriiQaSi

whose adherance to compassion was put to severe test by the

devas. Indra, disguised as a falcon, pounced upon its victim, a

pigeon. As the king tried to rescue the bird, the falcon said, "you

are depriving me of my right, I have a claim on my shikiir." The

just and compassionate king offered his own flesh if the falcon let

off the pigeon. The falcon agreed but the helpless bird grew

heavier in the scales as king Sivi went on slicing flesh from his

own body to equal the weight of the pigeon. Pleased with such

sense of compassion Indra appeared in his true form, blessed the

king and restored him back to health as before.

~ kusala mUias - meritorious roots of actions as give good results.

95. tirthikas- brahmin scholars who did not subscribe to Buddha's

gospel; some of the famous tirthika teachers contemporaneous

with Buddha were; Poorna-kasyapa, Maskari Goshiili-putra,

Sanjayi vairathi-putra, Ajit kesa-kambala, Kakuda-kiityiiyana,


96. prayoga - exercise, experiment.

97. pri~talabdha - past achievement, inherited, previously


98. apo~ - non-performance, non-stability.


99. a-pudgala - non-being, non-self existence of beings.

100. i~aya-nirvioa - aimed release as in Hinayina; 'i~aya' is

objective; nirviQa as an objective.

101. riddhi- powers of special attainment.

102. dUa-bh11111iMm - one of the most well known 'vaipulya sutras'

which was first translated into Chinese in 297 A.D. by Dharmaralma.

103. kirya-nispatti- completeness, proficiency in work.

104. p~labdha - later attainment.

105. vyavadioa- cleansing, 'vi~uddhati'.


1. aparimita -limitless.

2. apramiiQa- also termed 'apramir}ya', because countless 'jivas'

(creatures) are the 'alambana' of this 'samadhi', which comprises

'maitri' Oove), 'karul;li' (compassion), 'mudita' (joy) and 'upekSa'

(detachment), the four 'brahma-viharas'; the tenn 'apramiiQa' is

used in 'arya-dharma' scriptures.

3. dau¢lula - wickedness.

4. nimitta - an object, an aim, its motive cause.

5. nirvilkalpa pratibimbakama - a reflection, which is the result of

direct perception.

6. savikalpa pratibimbakama - a reflection, which is the result of

mental acquisition.

7. vastu-paryantata - the ultimate of things.

8. karya-parin~patti - fulfilment of work or objective.

9. avikalpa - without alternatives, undifferentiated.

10. tattva-nirupana vikalpa - analytical option.

11. vastu-paryantatva- the limits of phenomena.

12. paryanta -limit, end, boundary.

13. rasayana - elixir.

14. asraya-pravritti- attainable through the path of transcendental or

undifferentiated 'jiiana ', 'buddhattva'.

15. karya samapatti- absorption in work.

16. §ruta - that which is heard from an instructor or a teacher's lips.

17. chintana - reflection, contemplation. 'srilta-maya' 'chitanamaya'

and 'bhavana-maya' are practising ('prayogika') dhannas.

18. anuvyanjana - artistry, expression.

19. parsana-matt4ala- boddhisattvas, jinas- the family ('parivara')

of Buddha; his entourage.

20. riipi-ariipa-bheda - the world is made up of names and fonns

('name- rupatmaka'); both are related to skandhas; the difference

of 'fonn' and 'non-fonn'- riipi (with form) and 'ariipa' (without


21. riipa-skandha - fonn heaps.

22. vedana-skandha - feeling heaps.

23. apratibhasa - non-reflection.

24. vastu-sata -the ultimate or 'paramartha' of things; it is 'nirvikalpa'.

25. bhava-'is-ness'- feeling thereof, they are '§unya' in essence'

26. prapanch - falsehood, illusion.

27. nimimitta yoga - undifferentiated yoga.

28. vyapaka - pervasive.

29. vyapya - object of pervasiveness.


30. kausidya -laziness, lethargy, opposite of valour ('veerya').

31. sampram~ - forsaking.

32. laya - lethargic absorption of mind.

33. audhatya - insolence of mind.

34. anibhoga - non-effort.

35. iibhoga - effort.

36. ~ta-prahiit;la samskiira- eight 'samskiiras' that help removal of


37. graddhii- mental bliss, faith.

38. chhanda- desire to work ('kartu-kiimyatii').

39. vyiiyiima - exercise; exposition.

40. prasrabdhi - calmness; peace, activeness of body; opposite of


41. smriti- recollectedness.

42. sampraji'iiiya - awareness.

43. chetanii - that consciousness which understands • samyaka hetu'

and 'mithyii hetu' characteristics.

44. anusmriti -lit. 'to remember again and again or 'anunipa lllllriti', i.e.

proper rememberance of that which is of benefit to the yogi in his

'siidhanii'; the ten kinds of the objects of 'anusmriti' are; 'buddhiinusnuiti',

'dhanniinusmriti', 'sarnghanusmriti', 'mtanusnuiti', 'liibhiinusmriti',

'devatiin-nusmriti ', 'kiiyiigatiitma-smriti ', 'maraQiinusmriti',

'aniipiinanusmriti', 'upa§:amaniinusmriti'.

45. chitta-nirodha - cessation of the mind.

46. chaturtha-dhyiina -the last of the four 'dhyiinas' or 'dhyiinacha~'

specified for a yogi, it has two parts; 'upekgii-vedanii'

and 'ekiigratii' -feeling of detachment and concentration, all

'vitarka' (contradictions) disappear and 'detachment becomes

totally refmed during this meditation.

47. asattvas - non-true existence of beings.

48. Diirikii- daughter.

49. bahMruti - scholarly, erudite.

50. ayoniu - perversion (of belieO; wrong dharmas.

51. iijivakaviida- belief in destiny and that both the learned and the

ignorant lead their destined lives and moving through cyclic

existence and their • dukha '; it :believes neither in karma nor its

fruit, founded by Makkali Gosal, one of the six famous teachers

who were contemporaries of Buddha; Makkali lived in a hut

behind 'Jetavana'.

52. kgetra-pariguddhi - purification, sanctifying a (Buddha) - field,

(buddhatva' is attained through 'punya' and 'jiiiina'

accumulations; Buddhas, who do not enter •gunyatii' after

fulfilling their vow of service to 'sattvas' earn a field (' kgetra ') for


themselves which is sacred and sanctified with divine


53. prabhii. - the gloss of divinity, aura.

54. parivara - the Buddha-family of boddhisattvas, 'jinas' divine

beings and deities who surround Buddha or live in their own

different spheres like 'sukhii.vati'.

55. mahabhoga - having a large compass, great enjoyment,

providing others with it.

56. pratimoksa samvara- the vow for the deliverance of 'sattvas'

from 'samsara '.

57. aupalambhika- one who makes available, a donor, a giver.

58. priimrista - violated, affiicted with disease.

59. diina-pariyesthita - lapses in giving.

60. parikalpita - imagined, fictionalised with 'hetu' (cause) and

'pratyaya' (casual factor).

61. ni~parikalpa- without 'hetu' and 'pratyaya' absolute.

62. vyiikaraQa - 'vyiikhya ', exposition, explanation.

63. Dipankara - a bodhisattva.

64. animitta-vihara-paramatii- capacity to roam in 'animitta'.

65. avaivartika - not-returning.

66. mridu indriya- soft senses, gentle.

67. tikSaQ.a indriya- sharp senses.

68. samudachii.ra - appearance, manifestation.

69. parisi~ta- appendix, residual; also name of a class of works

supplementing sutras.

70. tyaga - renunciation.

71. mahatyaga - great renunciation.

72. ati-tyaga - total renunciation.

73. gomaya-maQ.c;lala- 'maQ.c;lala' made of 'gomaya' or cow-dung.

74. maQ.Qala- circular disc, orb.

75. nirodha samapatti - the absorption state when there is cessation

of all dharmas.

76. visuddhatartama k:1aQ.a- 'ksar:ta' or 'vise~a· is the experience of

'paramartha dravya' (the ultimate substance) which is 'ariipi'

(formless); while 'jfiana ', Dinnaga speaks of as 'pratyaksa'

(manifest) and 'anumana' (guess) as its two prongs, because a

subject is either 'vise~a· (special) or 'samiinya' (ordinary); 'vise~a·

is the equivalent of 'ksaQ.a', because it is that which is realised

through 'vivechana' (analysis) and is free from all 'samanya'

(ordinary) characteristics.

77. dharma-dhatu - the true essence of things, the equivalent of

'tathata', 'sunyatii', 'bhiita-koti'.