TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH
BY PARMANANDA SHARMA
WITH A FOREWORD
HIS HOLINESS THE DALAI LAMA
Tibetans will always remain grateful to such pat Indian scholars and
adepts as Shantarakshita, Padmasambhava and Dipamkara Shrijnana,
who brought the Buddha's teac:hings to the Land of Snows. Despite the
difficulties they faced, they spent the b'est part of their lives propaga~
and explaining the teachings of Sutra and Tantra for the Welfare of all
sentient beings. Kings, ministers, scholars and a whole class of
translators worked unceasingly to render Sanskrit texts and their
commentaries into Tibetan.
Aduuya Kamalashila (9th century CB), a disciple of Shantarakshita, was
the first Indian scholar to live and compose his writings in Tibet.
Bhavana-lcrama (Stages of Meditation) is one such work. It comprises
three parts which were probably written at different times. The focus of
Bhavana-lcrama is the cultivation of meditative concentration and special
insight. It details the sequence of meditational practices essential for
understanding the true nature of phenomena.
While Tibetan and Sanskrit editions of Bhavana-lcrama have been in
existence for centuries, no English translation of this remarkable classic
was readily available. Therefore, in response to my own suggesticm.
Professor P.N. Sharma has undertaken the task of translating it into
English. I am confident that whether they have an academic and.
historical view of the transmission of Buddhism to Tibet or a wish to put
these teachings into actual practice, English readers will find this
translation of great value.
November 5, 1996ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
My profoundest gratitude is due to His Holiness the Dalai
Lama for assigning the work of translation to me and for
giftin8 a copy ofBHAV ANA-KRAMA from his personal library.
Thanks are also due t~ my friend, Gyatsho Tshering, Director,
Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala, for
making available to me library facilities including xeroxing of
the.MS and to the staff of LTWA for their assistance and
Thanks are also due to Mr. Pradeep Goel, Aditya
Prakashari, publisher of this book.
-3. Bhivanakrama-D 51
4. Bhivanakrama-m 77
5. Glossary-1 101
6. Glossary-D 117
Kamalasila is one of those distinguished acharyas who
went to Tibet from India, stayed there and wrote scholarly
treatises on Buddha dharma. His historic debate with and
victory over the Chinese monk, Hoshang, is considered as a
~andmark in the annals of the spread of Buddhism in Bod.
'Bhavana-krama' is one of his more important writings and
comprises three chapters. Fortified with extensive quotes
from innumerable sutras, it delineates the 'krama' or se-
quence of meditational practice a seeker should undertake in
order to attain 'sarvajftata', the true knowledge of things.
Whereas the first and the third chapters had for long been
extant in Sanskrit, the second chapter was available in Tibetan
version alone. It was left to Prof. Gyaltsen Namdol of the
Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Varanasi to render
the second chapter back into Sanskrit from Tibetan. The
Institute brought out the complete version along with the
Tibetan and Hindi translations. The present work is the first:-
ever English rendering from original Sanskrit done at the
suggestion of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the great
Compassionate One, to whose gracious and constant
blessings I can never adequately match my humble gratitude.
Padmasambhava, Santaraksita, Dipankara Srijiiana and
Kamalasila together make the foursome of the great masters
who made the Dharma what it came to be in Tibet. To
Santaraksita and Kamalasila - the teacher-pupil duo - goes
the credit of propagating, preaching and developing
Buddhism in Bod in all its varied nuances, thus lending it
purity, originality and authenticity.
Kamalasila wrote his 'Bhavanakrama in Tibet itself,
keeping in view the special requirements of his Tibetan
audience. Hence, his style here is that of a lucid prose-writer
who deliberately clothed his lofty and abstract theme in
simple, intelligible Sanskrit which is quite different from his
diction in other works.
'B4avanakrama' is the first-ever Sanskrit text written by
any Indian acharya on the soil of Tibet. With the passage of
time, copies of Bhavana-krama manuscripts dwindled in the
monastic libraries of the country as the study of Sanskrit
declined. The second chapter in original totally disappeared
and whatever manuscripts remained became truncated. Of
course, the Tibetan version continued to be extant in its
entirety. Prof. Tucci retrieved Chapter I from Tibet and
Chapter III from Russia in original Sanskrit and he published
the two in Roman script.
Not much, by way of biographical information on
Kamalasila, is on record. He appears to have visited Tibet
during the reign of Trison-De-tsen, the 37th King (742-798
A.D.), who invited, among others, Acharya Santaraksita of
Nalanda and later Padmasambhava from Urgyan to Tibet. The
latter succeeded where the former had failed; the Tibetans
took readily to the teachings and practices of the
'mahasiddha rather than to the intellectual scholasticism of
Santaraksita who went back to India only to return later and
leave his mortal coil on the soil of Tibet after many years of
missionary work. Before Santaraksita died, he had predicted,
it is said, that a time would come when the Indian and
Chinese schools would come into sharp conflict on the
concepts of gradual and instant enlightenment as respectively
advocated by the two sides. So he had instructed that when
the exigency arose KamalaSila, his able pupil from Nalanda,
should be invited to defend the Indian point of view about the
interpretation of Sutra. A religious debate was arranged
between acharya Kamalasila and Hoshang, the Cpinese
monk. It was held at Samye and covered a period of two years
(792-794 A.D.). The Chinese Hoshang was defeated and the
king, himself a great scholar, declared KamalaSila the victor.
To mark the great Indian acharya's triumph, a royal
proclamation was also issued in letters of gold inscribed on
blue paper. This document was ordered to be preseiVed as a
court document. The main features of the proclamation were
as historic as the occasion that had led to it; the Three Gems
('tri-ratna') to be never abandoned; monasteries to be
maintained and supported; all succeeding kings and members
of royalty to uphold the Proclamation. Ministers and princes
and army commanders took oaths of loyalty to the document
of which thirteen copies were made (or record. Feasting,
singing and dancing festivities followed in which the royal
family, including the king, cabinet members and other high
dignitaries participated. The king even composed a poem to
mark the occasion:-
With great toil have I gathered the treasure
and I am happy to spend without measure
in spreading the faith of the Buddha,
gleaned from the land of India,
It was in Tho-tho-ri Nyantsen's reign
that The Secret first here came;
translated in Songtsen Gampo's time,
it has become established in mine.
It is said that the Chinese circles felt extremely piqued over
their defeat; it was a total loss of face for them. They were notINTRODUC110N
the ones to take their defeat sportingly; their hired assasins
murdered the ichirya in cold blood. The great teacher's tragic
death broke the king's heart who too passed away soon after.BHAV ANAKRAMA.- I
I shall briefly describe 'bhavanakrama' 1 or the sequence
of meditation in accordance with the rules ·of conduct
prescribed for an 'adikarmika ' 2 in the Mahayana Siitras.
Those desirous of attaining ~sarvajiiata' 3 speedily should, in
essence, try to practise these three things: 'karuQa', 4
'bodhichitta' 5 and 'pratipatti'. 6
Knowing that 'karuQa' is the basic root of all dharma
practices of Lord Buddha's teachings, it should be
contemplated or meditated upon at the very outset. As has
been said in Arya-dharma-sangeeti: "So the bodhisattva
mahasattva Arya Avalokitesvara said this to Lord Buddha,
'0 Lord! a bodhisattva should not receive instruction in various
dharmas. If he thoroughly practises a single dharma with
devotion, all other dharmas will be his. Now, what is that single
dharma? It is 'maha-karuQa'. Through 'maha-karur:ta' all other
Buddha dharmas 7 are in the palm of a-bodhisattva's hand,
0 Lord! just as where-so-ever a 'chaktavartin' ruler's chakra-
jewel moves, there do his mighty armies, so also, 0 Lord!
where-so-ever a bodhisattva's 'mahakaruQa' goes, thither do
all Buddha dharmas follow. 0 Lord! just as all other senses
function so long as life-breath stays so also as long as
mahakarur:ta stays all other dharmas for the bodhisattvas are
It has been said in Aryaksya-mati-nirdesa: "moreover,
0 bhadanta, 8 Sharadavati's son! the bodhisattvas' 'mahakarur:ta'
is inexhaustible. And, how is it so? Because, it is 'purvM!gama' , 9
0 bhadanta Sharadavati 's son! just as breathing in and breathing
out is the 'purvagami' 10 or precursor of life-breath, so also in
Mahayana, a bodhisattva's 'mahakarur:ta' is a pre-requisite for
the collection of 'punya' or merit". Also, in the Arya-gaya-
sir~a: "0 Manjusri! What is the beginning of the conduct of
bodhisattvas and what their adh~thana ?11>' "Manjusri replied
'0 Deva-putra! the beginning of a bodhisattva's conduct is
'mahakarur:ta' and its adh~thana the beings."
By it, i.e. 'mahakaruQa', inspired the bodhisattvas, with14
little concern for themselves, work assiduously for collecting
merit through long, arduous periods of time with the sole
object of others' well-being. So it has been said in Arya-
§raddhabaHidhana: "For the well-being of sattvas through
'mahakarui;Ui', there is no joy which a bodhisattva does not
renounce." In this manner, by engaging himself in the most
difficult situations and by collecting (sambhara) 12 merit
quickly, he attains 'sarvajftata'. Therefore, the root of all
Buddha-clharmas is 'mahakarui;Ui'." It was through holding on
to 'mahakaruQ.a' that Lord Buddha, after attaining 'sarva-
jftata', continued to work for the whole world. The Lord's
'mahakarui;Ui' is thus the very reason for the Lord not enter-
ing • nirvaQ.a •.
It, i.e. 'ma.ha.karui;Ui', is (born from and) augmented by
constantly reflecting in the mind over the sufferings of
beings. All 'sattvas' are suffering from the three-fold pain 13
of dukhas rampant in: the three worlds', 14 - (reflecting) like
this one should fiX one's thought on all beings. The Lord has
described how hell-beings continue to suffer for long periods
from such tortures as fire-burning; so also 'pretas', 15 through
suffering from dukha-fire with extreme hunger and thirst, get
emaciated in body and suffer terribly for a hundred years
even; such as these have not had even spittal to lick at. Thus
has, stated the Lord. Beings born even as 'tiryakas' 16 are seen
to experience great suffering through mutual anger, killings,
beatings and torturing etc. For example, some have their
bodies made helpless through piercing of ears, beatings and
lashing and they are made to suffer by all and sundry. Their
bodies get exhausted and fatigued by their having to carry
loads unwillingly. Some, living in the forest, may also be
searched out and killed even though they may be innocent.
Some, out of mutual fear, are constantly running about here
and there with minds disturbed.
Their sufferings too seem to be endless. Hell-tortures can
be witnessed even during human existence, because here
also things like the amputation of a thief's limbs, consignment
to the scaffold and the tying down of hands and feet etc. areBHAVANAKRAMA-1
nothing but hell-tortures. Those who suffer from penury are
experiencing the dukhas of hunger and thirst like 'pretas'.
Those who as servants have subordinated their thoughts to
others and those who are tortured after being over-powered
by the powerful suffer from the tortures of beating and tying
like 'tiraykas'. So also are immeasureable the dukhas of
beings during journeys and from mutual deceit and beatings,
and from union with and separation from the unloved and the
loved ones respectively. The affluent ones who are
considered to be happy are also liable to lose their property
submerged as they are in the midst of extremely evil eyes,
and owing to the accumulation of many 'kle5as' and 'karmas'
which are causal to the experiencing of hell-tortures, they are
like trees on the edge of a waterfall and are, in the ultimate
sense, unhappy being' in the midst of the causes of dukha.
Even gods do not have mental composure 17 so long as
they wander in the realm of 'kama' or desire because their
minds, aflame with the raging frre of desires, are unclean and
mad. What happiness can be there for these so poor in the
joys of the wealth of tranquillity ? 18 What happiness can be
there for them, i.e. gods, who are overcome by the constant
fear of a fall (from their god-state) ? Those who, for some
period (of their existence) move about _in visible and invisible
states (that is, with form and without form) also, though free
for a while from the tortures of suffering, ultimately suffet--
from the dukha of evil consequences leading to hell-tortures
owing to their not having overcome the 'anuSa.yas' 19 from a
'kamavachara'zo conduct. Thus all human ·beings and gods
owing to their subordination to 'karma kle5as',~are suffering
from the dukha of 'samskara-dukha'. 22
In this way the whole world is wrapped around by a
wreath of dukha-frre; so seeing and thinking 'just as I do not
like suffering so also don't others', one should generate a
feeling of compassion for all beings. First of all such
'bhavana' or contemplation should be cultivated towards
friends, keeping in mind the aforesaid experiences of dukha
Then, with a mind introvert and staid, one should
contemplate like this: 'there is not a single 'sattva' in this
beginning-less world who has not been related to me a
hundred times'; in this manner contemplate on ordinary
beings. When compassion similar to that for one's friends is
also generated for common beings, one should through
'chitta-samata'Z' or mental equality contemplate on one's
enemies also. When one is as much concemedz 4 for one's
enemies as for one's friends one should generate identical
'bhavana' or feeling for all the beings in all the ten directions
one after the other. When the spontaneous desire to remove
the dukha of all the sattvas like one would that of one's own
dear child is generated, it (i.e. the desire) becomes
·~panna'Z 5 or staid and is designated as 'mahakaruQ.a' as has
been described in AkSayamati-siitra. This sequence of 'kripa'
bhavana or the contemplation of compassion has been
described by the Lord in the AbhidhaJll!3. siitras etc.
Through the force of the practising of such compassion
and the vow of uplifting all 'sattvas', bodhichitta Z6 is
spontaneously born as importunatel' for 'annuttar-samyaka-
As has been said in Arya Da§a-dharma-siitra: "Seeing that
the beings are unprotected, unsheltered and homeless one
should ftx one's mind in 'karul).ii' so that 'anuttara samyaka-
sambodhi' is generated." Even though 'bodhichitta is
generated in a bodhisattva through another's adherence to
'samyaka 'Z 9 still bodhichitta generated in a bodhisattva
through the on-rush of compassion is far superior as stated in
Arya-Tathagata-jiiana-mudra. Samadhi by the Lord. He (the
Lord) has said that such bodhichitta is highly beneficial in the
world even without 'pratipatti' ."'As has been mentioned in
Maitreya-Vimoksa: "0 kulputra! just as a broken 'Vajra-
ratna''1 superimposes itself on the best of gold ornaments but
still retains its identity and removes all want, similarly, 0
kulputra! the 'Vajra-ratna' of the generation of mind for the
attainment of 'sarvajiiata', 'z even if not accompanied by
'pratipatti', superimposes itself on the gold ornaments of theBHA VANAKRAMA-1
'guQas' 33 of a 'sravaka'34 and a 'pratyeka-buddha';35 it does
not abandon 'bodhichitta' and also removes the wants of the
He who cannot be fully and in every manner educated in
the 'paramitas' 36 should also cultivate bodhichitta, because
by holding on to 'upayaya',37 great benefits accrue. As has
been said in Arya-rajavavadaka-siitra: "0 king! as you are a
great doer and can do a lot, it is not possible to educate
everyone in every way from 'dana-paramita' 38 to 'prajiia-
paramita'39 so you should constantly re-capitulate', mentally
visualise and contemplate on your desire for and faith in
prayer and determination or vowtO for 'samyaka sambodhi'
while walking, stopping, sitting, sleeping, waking, eating,
drinking, recollecting all the 'kiisala-miilas' 41 or root-merits
of the Buddhas, bodhisattvas, pratyeka-buddhas, arya-
sravakas, common people, your own of the past, of the
present, of the future, and commend th~m (i.e. kusala miilas).
After 'anumodana' 42 or commending, offer it again to the
Buddhas, bodhisattvas, prat'yeka-buddhas, arya-sravakas
through worship and, after offering, make them common43
for the common people. Then transform into 'anuttara-
sarriyaka-sambodhi' all 'kusalas' or merits practised thrice
everyday for the attainment of 'sarva)nata' by sattvas and for
the fulfilment of all Buddha-dharmas. 44 Thus will you, 0
King! having become- ... pratipanna' or realised, rule (your
kingdom). You wilYnot have to abandon governance and you
will also accomplish 'bodhi-sambhara' 45 or accumulation of
bodhi." He further added: "as the frui~ of your root-merits of
'samyaka-sambodhi', many times you were born among
gods, many times among men and during all your godly and
human births you will be a ruler." Thus said in detail.
Bodhichitta, which is the essence of 'pratipatti' or
attainment, has been proved to be immensely fruitful. As has
been said in A.rya-veerdatta-pariprichha: "If the 'punya'
which is attained from bodhichitta is handSome, it will fill the
entire 'akasa-dhatu ' 47 and overflow it." "A person offers as
many 'buddha-ksetras' 48 full of gems as the sands of the18
Ganga to the Lords, another with folded hands bows his mind
(asking) for bodhi; the latter worship is superior because it
has no end." says Arya-gandavyiiha: "0 Kulputra! bodhichitta
is the seed of all Buddha-dharmas". This in detail. "That
bodhichitta is of two kinds, 'prat;1idhi'-chitta' 49 and
'prasthana-chitta' ,' 50 that is, the mind that is fixed on the goal
and the mind that is actually treading the road to bodhi.
0 Kulaputre! such beings are rare in the world who fix their
mind in 'anuttara-samyaka-sambodhi'; rarer even are beings
who have ventured on the path of 'anuttara-samyaka-
sambodhi'. May I become a Buddha for the well-being of the
whole world; -such a preliminary prayer by the practitioner
is called 'prat;lidhi-chitta' or fixing of the mind from the
moment one holds the vow ('samvara') 51 and enters
'sambhara' 52 or accumulation (of bodhi), it is termed as
'prasthana-chitta' or the journeying mind.
'Samvara' has to be received from other powerful and
learned and 'samvara '-attuned kalyat;1-mitras. 53 In the
absence of a favourable 'grahaka' or recepient (or giver?),
bodhichitta should be generated by visualizing the Buddhas
and the bodhisattvas as did Arya Manjusri by becoming
Ambara-raja. 54 A bodhisattva who has so generated
bodhichitta himself practises 'dana' etc. by giving and
engages in 'pratipatti' knowing that if one does not oneself
give away one cannot (exercise) control (over) others. And,
there is no attainment of bodhi without 'pratipatti' or the
knowledge of the eight-fold path.
As has been said in Arya-gayasi~a. "The bodhisattvas
with 'pratipatti' achieve bodhi and not those without
"pratipatti". It has also been stated in Arya-samadhi-raja:
"0 Kumara! you should thus-wise instruct yourself: 'I shall
possess the essence of 'pratipatti.' What for thus ? Because,
0 Kumara! for one possessing the essence of 'pratipatti',
'anuttara-samyaka-sambodhi' is not difficult to attain."
The 'pratipatti' of the bodhisattva along with the
differentiation of 'paramita', 'apramat;1a' 55 and 'samgraha-
vastu ' 56 etc. has been described in detail in sutras likeBHAVANAKRAMA-1
AkSyamati-ratnamegha-sutra. When a bodhisattva has to learn
even such material subjects as 'silpa' , 57 what then to speak of
transcendental dhyana etc.? Otherwise, how will he fulfil all
his commitments towards sattvas? Hence, in brief, the
'prajiia' and 'upayaya' 58 of a bodhisattva are neither only
'prajiia' nor only 'upayaya' alone. As has been said in Arya
Vimala-kirti-nirdesa: "'prajiia' without 'upayaya' and
'upayay~· without 'prajiia' are a bondage for the
bodhisattva." 'Upayaya' (means) with 'prajna' (wisdom) and
'prajiia' with 'upayaya' are described as release. It is also
said in Arya-gayasir~a: "In brief, these are the two paths for a
bodhisattva. Equipped with this twin path, the 'maha-sattva'
bodhisattva will soon be linked with 'anuttara-samyaka-
sambodhi' or supreme enlightenment. What are these two?
These are 'upayaya' and 'prajna'.
Here, leaving aside the Perfection of Wisdom, all others
such as the perfection of 'dana', 'samgrah-vastu' 59 etc.,
'ksetra-parisudhi' , 60 'mahabhoga', 'bahu-parivara-samp-
ata', 61 'sattva-paripaka nirmar:ta ' 62 - etc. the collection of all
these is called 'kuSala upayaya' of meritorious effort. By thus
differentiating through discrimination proper 'upayaya' and
by properly fulfllling one •·s own and others' objectives, one
does not contract 'samklesas' 63 just as when mantra-sanctified
poison is taken (and no harm comes). And, thus has it been
expostulated in the sutra: "Upayaya is the knowledge of
'samgrah', 64 'prajiia' the knowledge of differentiation or
discrimination. 65 " It is said in Arya-sradha-baladhana: "What is
the skill in upayaya? It is the acquisition of all dharmas. What
is 'prajiia'? It is the skill in analysing all dharmas," Both these
- 'prajiia' and 'upayaya' and not 'prajiia' alone or 'upayaya'
alone have always to be practised even by bodhisattvas who
have entered the 'bhumis' , 66 because a bodhisattva's proper
conduct in the 'paramitas' or perfections in all the ten
'bhumis' 67 has been taught in Dasabhumika etc.
Of a bodhisattva who roams calmly in the eighth 68
'bhumi', 'vyuthana' 69 (from it) is opposed by the Buddhas.
This is understandable when the following (injunction) is20
studied: "therefore, 0 jina-putra! of a bodhisattva who is
established in this 'achala ' 70 stage and in the collected force
of his earlier fixation or 'prar;ti-dhana' and in the fundamental
source of dharma/ 1 Lord Buddha calls a 'ftnis' (upasamhara) 72
to his previously acquired knowledge and He thus addresses
him, "well done, well done, 0 Kulputra! This 'paramartha
ksanti' 73 is for pursuing all Buddha-dharmas. However,
0 Kulaputra! even so, that intellect which comprises ten
'balas' 74 and four qualifications 75 and is regarded as Buddha
dharma's wealth is still not yours. So, yoke yourself into a
search for the glory of that Buddha dharma; start effort; do
never leave this doorw.ay of 'ksanti', Even then, 0 Kulaputra!
now that you have attained this 'santi-vimoksa-vihara' 76 you
must think of and own up those ignorance-common folks
who, in their restless, disturbed state indulge in varying
'klesas' and whose minds are clogged with many arguments
and counter-arguments. And again, 0 Kulputra! remember
your earlier vows to make available to 'sattvas' a state of no
worry through (the cultivation oO true 'jiiana' .7 7 This,
0 Kulaputra! is the dharmata 78 of all dharmas. Whether or not
Tathagatas 79 are born, this state· of 'dharmata' and 'dharma-
dhatu'80 stays just as 'sarva-dharma sunyata' 81 and 'sarva-
dharmanu-plabdhi',82 i.e. the emptiness of all phenomena
and the non-true existence of all phenomena. Not only are
Tathagatas affected by it but even 'sravakas' and 'pratyeka-
buddhas'' .attain to this 'avikalpa-dharmata' 83 or the true
nature of 'dharmata' understanding."
"Again, 0 kulaputra! observe the inmitable 84 quality of
our body, of our 'jiiana', of 'buddha~ksetra', of the
accumulation 85 of knowledge, of our aura 86 and of the
immaculate purity of speech. 87 You too should generate
similar accumulation (of kusala in various 'bhiimis '). This sole
effulgence, 0 Kulaputra! is the transcendental 88 glow in all
dharmas. 0 Kulaputra! such effulgences of Tathagatas are
infinite, 89 eternally 90 born, eternally-linked, 91 countless,
numberless, un-provable, inimitable, matchless. Generate
accumulation (of 'kusala') in order to understand them. Also,BHAVANAKRAMA-1
0 Kulaputra! observe the illimitable expanse, 92 the illimitable
beings 93 and the analysis of illimitable dharma varieties94 in
all the ten directions. Count them and generate Tathagata 's
'abhinirhara' or kusala-appropriation in the same manner.
0 jina-putra! to a bodhisattva who has attained this kind of
'bhumi', Lord Buddha closes the doors of accumulation
('abhinirhara') which are prominent, numberless and of
unlimited 'jiiana', the abhinirhara' doors 95 of knowledge
through which, by means of the divisions of unlimited
knowledge, they generate 'abhinirhara karma' . 96 0 jina-
putra! you have to achieve 'adhimukti ' 97 you have to achieve
'avabodha' 98 - fmal release and enlightenment. I commend
it to you, jinaputra! I say it to you. If the bodhisattva is not
made to enter the doors of the accumulation of 'sarvajnata-
jiiana'99 he will there (i.e. at that stage) enter 'parinirva1,1a' 100
and the work of all sattvas disintegrate. 101 " Thus has it been
propounded in detail. Whatever has been propounded in
Arya Vimala-kirti-nirdesa and Gayasir~ is in contradiction of
this, that is, the aforesaid postulate, because it has been dealt
with these in a general sense only.
Whatever has been said in Arya-sarva-dharma-samgrah-
vaipulya is also opposite to the above. It is said therein:
"0 Manjusri! the 'avaraQ.a' 102 or cover of 'pratiksepa 10 ~
karma' or negating actions of true dharma is very subtle. He
who generates 'sobhana 104 sanjiia' or fair cognition and he
who generates 'asobhana 105 sanjiia' or unbecoming cognition
in the Tathagata-propounded dharma,- both retard 1116 the
true dharma. Such 'dharma-pratiksepa' is tantamount to a
rebuttal of Tathagata." So saying at length, he again said:
"0 Maitreya! to a person who properly 107 cultivates the Six
Perfections for 'a bodhisattva's sambodhi or enlightenment,
the ignorant ones will say, 'a bodhisattva should learn only
'prajna-paramita,' what with other perfections?' They regard
the other 'upayaya-paramita' 1 ~m as taboo. How do you regard
this, 0 Ajita? 109 Was that KaSinija 110 a fool to have given away his
flesh in lieu of that of the pigeon to the preying falcon? 'No,
my Lord,' said: Maitreya. 111 The Lord said, '0 Maitr~ya! did22
those kusal-mulas or root-merits (meritorious practices)
pertaining to the Six Perfections, which I garnered while
practising the conduct of a bodhisattva do me harm?' Maitreya
replied, 'not at all, my Lord!' The Lord continued, '0 Ajita!
you have practised the proper vows of 'dana-paramita' for
sixty 'kalpas'. 112 If even you practise 'prajfta-paramita' for
sixty 'kalpas,' those ignorant ones will again say, 'a single
'naya' 113 or path can lead to bodhi; for example, 'sunyata
naya' or the path of emptiness', this has been said in detail.
It is also mentioned in Vairochanabhi-sambodhi: 'This 'jnana'
f 'sarvajiiata' has 'karut;ta' or compassion as its root, it is the
'hetu' or cause of 'bodhichitta' and is the end 114 of 'upayaya'.
Therefore, bodhisattvas should always practise both of
This also proves that the Tathagatas are never installed 115
in 'nirvar;ta'. So also the Lord will not stay put in 'nirvat;ta' by
accepting the wealth of the fruit of such grand
enjoyments: 'rupa-kaya', 116 'ksetra' 117 and 'parivara' 118
attained through the efforts of 'dana' etc.; nor will these be
their station in 'samsara' owing to the total removal of all their
delusion, 119 for 'viparyasa' or delusion alone is the root of
cyclic existence. This 'pratipatti' or realisation born of
'prajfta ... and 'upayaya' will aid the stoppage of the
consequences 120 of superimposition 121 and contradiction 122
and, give birth to the 'madhyama marga' or the Middle Way,
because 'prajfta' prevents the consequences of super-
imposition and 'upayaya' prevents the consequences of
contradiction. Hence it is said in Arya-dharma-samgeeti:
'Lord Buddha's attributes 123 and their expression 124 are
conducive to the creation of 'rupa' - kaya or physical form
and not unto the 'abhisamaya' 125 of 'dharma' - kaya' 126 or
subtle form. Again the generation 127 or creation affected by
the Tathagatas through 'prajfta' and 'upayaya' should be
followed or pursued in preference to other factors."
Again, it has been said: "Those who regard dharma as a
mere boat should give up dharma too; of course, before that
a dharma must also be forsaken." This has been said in orderBHAVANAKRAMA-1
that belief in opposing or contrary dhannas is abolished and
not tha,t no support be taken for the realisation of the
objective. Hence, it has been said: "dharma should be
accepted but not stuck 128 to." It means that it should not be
accepted from the wrong 129 end or contrary approach.
Whatever has been said about the material fruits of' dana' etc.
has been said only about the 'dana' practised as aforesaid by
people without 'prajna' and for those who are satisfied with it
as such, in order to encourage them to practise further root
merit, otherwise, it would go contrary to all that has been
earlier said in Arya-vimala-kirti-nirdesa etc. Thus it is
established that 'prajiia' and 'upayaya' should both be
cultivated. So 'dana-paramita' etc. accompanied by 'prajna'
(wisdom), alone and in no other manner attain an identity, a
designation. 130 Therefore, one must strive for the generation
of 'prajiia' for sanctifying 'dana' etc. through absorption in
• samadhi'. 131
Now, 'srutamayP 32 prajiia' should be generated first.
Through it one grasps the meaning of 'agama'. 133 Then,
through 'chintamayi 134 prajiia' one pierces or analyses the
intelligible 135 and the dubious 136 meanings. Deciding in this
manner one should contemplate on reaP 37 and not unreaP 38
connotation, otherwise true cognition or ultimate knowledge
will not dawn owing to contemplation on the contrary aspect
and non-refutatio~ of doubt. 139 In that case, 'bhavana' will
become meaningleSs as in the case of • tirthikas'. 140 As the
Lord has said in Samadhiraja also: "If one perceives
'nairatmya' 141 in all dharmas and, so perceiving, one
practises 'bhavana' or meditation, it will become the • hetu' or
cause of nirv:iQ.a-fruit; other causes are no-wise for 'santi' or
Hence, by means of contemplative wisdom and analysis
through logic and scriptures, one must meditate on the true
nature of 'bhiitas'. That all things, in the ultimate sense, are
non-existent 142 has been concluded on the basis of logic and
scriptures. As has been stated in the scripture called, Arya-
dharma-samgiti: "non-generation alone is true; other dharmas24
like generation tH are not true." It is stated as being in
accordance with 'paramartha' or the ultimate meaning. Non-
generation (i.e. non-true existence) is true. However, in the
ultimate analysis, there is neither 'utpada' (generation or
being) nor 'anutpada' (non-generation or non-being),
because that or 'paramartha' is beyond all classification or
label. Again, it is said in the same scripture: "0 kulputra! the
attitude or position of the world is dependent on relying144 on
'utpada' (generation or being) and 'nirodha' or cessation'
(non-being). Therefore, the supremely compassionate
Tathagata, in order to abolish the world's areas of fear had
said for practical reasons, that 'there is birth, there is
cessation', and certainly not (for the reason) that, in the
ultimate sense, any dharma is born." It is stated in Arya-
Buddha-samgiti also: "What is the query about 'yonisa', 145
what 'yoni?' 146 It has been said that non-generation is 'yoni'
and the query about it is 'yonisa prichha."147 And, again: all
dharmas are 'chakara 148 mukha' because they are without
beginning without cessation; also, all dharmas are 'abhava-
mukha'149 because they are void or empty by nature."
Arya-satya-dvya-vibhaga also states: "the commonality of
'anutpada' or non-generation is the commonality of all
dharmas or phenomena." Prajna-paramita says: "0 Subhuti,
form is devoid of the 'svabhava' (self-existence) of form just
as the bounds of 'vijiiana' (discriminatory cognition) are
devoid of the (true) self-existence or svabhava of 'vijiiana'
owing to the emptiness of all self-nature." Hastika-ksya also
states: "nothing exists whose generation or birth is possible.
Ignorant people look for the possible from the impossible
dharmas." H has been said in Pita-putra-samagama: "all
dharmas during the three times (past, present and future)
have been identical. All dharmas were 'svabhava-rahita' or
without true self-existence in the past and are so in the
present also." Thus should it be examined through 'agama'
(scriptures). It is not possible for others to refute such
conclusions from the scriptures through logic established. So,
examining through logic must be done.BHAVANAKRAMA-1
Now about logic, briefly. Is the generation of 'bhavas'
(things, phenomena, etc.) without cause or with cause? It
cannot be without cause because it is occasionally noticeable.
In the absence of any reliance on 'karaQ.a' or cause and
because of the (intervening) interval, why should not things
generate (themselves) always and everywhere as if in
'utpada-kala' or an era of creation? If there is no interval from
the time of non-generation, there will be no generation (of
things) even at the time of generation. Thus there is no
generation without cause. There is no generation with cause
either. There can be no creation or being from an imaginary,
permanent 'hetu' like an 'iswara' 150 as believed by tirthikas'
(heretics) because creation is noticeable (as occurring) at
intervals ('kramasa'). Of 'avikala' 151 or constant causes the
result cannot be occasional owing to its nirape~sattvata 152 or
(independent) constancy. 'Iswara', etc. being self-competent
need not depend on any other (cause) for assistance as he is
permanent. There need be no dependence for the
independent. These 'iSwara' etc. being devoid of omnipotence
are non-existent in essence like the son of a barren woman. A
thing having capacity for 'artha-kriya' 153 is incapable of
generating any act in an occasional sequence as has been
already discussed. There is no simultaneous creation either,
because, by creating everything at the same time, if it can
repeat such creation later on also then, owing to a repetition
of its omnipotent nature, there will arise the possibility of the
creation of things as before. If there is no repetition and the
previous nature is abandoned, the possibility of 'anityata' or
impermanence would arise.
Hence, nothing by the designation of 'nitya' or
permanent exists. The Lord has said, "There is a super-
imposition154 of 'asata' 155 (the non-existent). Belief in such
artificial or non-existent things as 'akasa', 156 'nirodh' 157 and
nirvaQ.a (space, cessation and release), etc. is super-
imposition." Therefore, there is none of the creation or
'utpada' from 'nitya' or permanence; neither is there any
from 'anitya' or impermanence, because owing to the26
nothingness of these during the past and the future no
creation is possible from them; otherwise too, it would be a
creation without cause or 'hetu'? As there is no creation in
similar or dissimilar times, there can be no creation from the
present time also. Thus there is no simultaneity of generating
time; otherwise, for causal reasons, it will give rise to
simultaneity of generation or creation also. There is no
generation from variation in time either, because if it takes
place - after a difference in time, there could be generation
in the past also. If, in regarding creation as from
'avyavadhana' 158 or non-interval, interval occurs, all 'kSar;tas'
or moments will merge into one 'ksar;ta' 159 and, in
consequence, a 'kalpa' will (also) squeeze into 'k5ar;ta' just as
the linking of atoms in all directions will reduce the 'pinda' 1 6o
or mass also to a mere atom. Linkage with a single part makes
a moment alive (savayava). 161 Things are not self-created
either owing to this premise being at par with the non-cause
postulate and the concept of the creator being self-
contradictory. There is no possibility of generating from both
because of the conjunction of the drawbacks of both
Hence things are without any substantial existence, i.e.
unrelated in the ultimate sense. This is not contrary to the
(teachings of) scriptures even though in an apparent or
illusory sense, creation does appear to exist. So the Lord has
said: 'Things exist only in 'samvrita' and not 'paramartha';
The delusion about the. 'nissvabhava' of things is called the
'samvriti satya'. 162
Such-like logic has also been endorsed by the Lord in
siitras like Salistamba? By itself, from another or from both
and without cause, there can be no creation.
Now, let us examine by another argument. 'Bhavas' are
of two kinds; with form and without form. Of these, pitcher,
etc. which have form are not of one 'svabhava' (entity,
nature) being composed of different atoms. Being situated
fore and aft and when divided into directions like east, etc.
the atom's existence is not established. And, being in (a stateBHAVANAKRAMA-1
oO conglomeration, they cannot be said to possess different
self -existence or 'svabhava'. There is no other existence of a
thing barring single (existence) and multiple (existence).
Therefore, things with form are 'nissabhava' or non-existent
in the ultimate sense like a form seen in a dream. This has
been stated by the Lord in Arya Lankavatara: "0 mahamati
(the greatly wise); even the horns of a cow, when divided
into atoms, do not exist. Even atoms cannot retain atomic
qualities or characteristics when divided."
Things which are without form are equally non-existent
(in essence), when similarly examined. So also things
outwardly appearing as blue etc. though not truly existent are
only 'vijiiana skandha' 163 or an aggregate of cognition,
though without form but appearing as blue. The Lord has
said, "there are no apparent forms; only the mind sees itself
(i.e. its own superimposed reflection).". Therefore, the blue
etc. being seen in different shapes and because of the
received and the recepient being incapable of the same
existing nature as a consequence of the contradiction
between the one and the many, the 'one' cannot be of the
nature of 'many'. When the non-existence of the one is
proved, the existence of the many is also impossible,
because the 'many' is only a conglomeration of the 'one's',
If these manifestations of form etc. are false 164 or
insubstantial and are accepted as such, 'vijiiana' itself will
become false because the cognition of the form will be no
different from form itself. 'Vijnana' or cognition has no other
form apart from its own manifest form. Forms etc. do not
shine by themselves but when they are cognised as false,
cognition itself becomes false. That is why the Lord has said:
"all cognition is maya or illusory" . 165 So the one and the many
being non-existent are not true in the ultimate sense. The
Lord has said this very thing in Lankavatara: "The nature of
things is like the reflection in a mirror which is devoid of both
singularity and plurality; although it (i.e. the reflection)
appears to be there but, in fact, it is not there." Devoid of
'ekattva' or singularity and 'anyattva' or multiplicity, it is28
neither one nor many. 'Buddhi' or intellect does not take
over the nature of existence of that which it examines.
Therefore, these are said to be 'nirabhiHisa' 166 and
'nissvabhava' i.e. unbiased and without essence."
By determining the (true) meaning of things in this
manner through deliberative intellect one must generate
meditative wisdom in order to manifest the true meaning of
things. It has been said in sutras like Arya-ratna-megha: "the
true meaning never becomes manifest or clear merely
through listening (to a lot of expositions). Experience comes
only to such as those who practise 'pratipatti' ,1 67 or through
comprehension. The cover of darkness lying over the
'samyaka' or true meaning cannot be removed without the
dawn of the clear light of 'jfi.ana'. If meditation is done
profusely the clear knowledge of the hidden meaning is also
born. If 'jfi.ana' comes to those who contemplate on 'asubha'
and 'prithvi-kritsna' 168 only, what then to speak of those who
meditate on 'bhutas'!" The success of meditation as the
harbinger of the fruit of true knowledge has been described
in Arya-samadharaja: "I tell you, I put it across to you that as
much as a person may analyse or indulge in logic so much
will his mind be moulded in accordance with the conclusion
he arrives at." This has been said in detail. Hence, he who
wants to· manifest truth or wishes to grasp the essence of
things should practise 'bhavana';- meditation.
Herein, the yogi should first cultivate 'samatha'~ 69 or calm
in order to stabilise the mind. Being 'chanchala' or flippant
like water, the mind cannot become poised without the basis
of 'samatha'. Nor can a person whose mind is not
'samahita' 170 or tranquil can understand the truth of thirigs
('yatha bhutama'), the essence. The Lord said, "one with a
tranquil mind understands the 'yatha-bhuta'. Tranquillity
comes quickly to a person indifferent towards the desire for
gain etc. and to one who is of correct disposition, is of the
nature of dukha-awareness 171 etc. and is on the path of
'veerya' 172 or effort. Hence 'dana' etc. have been mentioned
repeatedly in Arya-sandhi-nirmochana etc.BHA VANAKRAMA-1
Thus staying in 'samatha' collections like 'sila' 173 etc.,
bowing to all Buddhas and bodhisattvas at a spot convenient
to the mind after indicating 'papa' 174 and commending
'punya', 175 keeping in view 'mahakaruQa' which aims at the
welfare of the entire world, with body erect (but at ease),
sitting on a congenial seat (or in the comfortable posture of
'sukhasana')1 76 assuming the lotus pose, one should practise
'samadhi' or meditational repose.
First of all mind should be briefly fiXed on all aspects of
the object of contemplation so that it becomes a solid or
massed object (to reflect on). In brief, an object is of two
kinds: with form and without form. In order to ward off the
defect of deviation 177 of an adikarmika' or novice initiate, it is
proper to have a small or brief 'alambana' 178 only. When one
has mastered 'manaskara' or mental actualisation one can
take to a larger or detailed 'alambana' by refining or
rectifying the process through the differentiations of
'skandha' and 'dhatu' etc. As has been said in Arya-samadhi-
nirmochana etc.: "the yogis have many kinds of 'alambanas'
like the eighteen types of 'sunyata' . 179
Here also, for the good of sentient beings, the Lord has
spoken about 'vastubheda' 180 in 'abhidharma' 181 etc. in
accordance with the differences between the formless ( vastu
or thing) and the corporeal (things) in brief, medium and
detailed manners. For the removal of superimpositions and
falsities, the thing or the object should be regarded as a mere
mass or collection of 'skandha' and 'dhatu'. Thus being
assured of the collection with respect to all things, the mind
should again and again be brought around to concentrate on
that (massed aspect of things).
In case the mind, in between, deviates and gets outward-
prone due to 'raga' or attachment, one must silence such
aberration by reflecting on the 'asubha' or unwholesome
(responsible for deviation) and stabilise the mind again and
again. The sequence of reflection on 'asubha' has not been
mentioned here in detail for fear of dilation. When the mind
appears to be disinterested, one should reflect on the30
advantages of meditation and concentrate on one's interest
on it. Whenever faults of deviation or distraction appear, one
must quieten down one's disinterestedness. When owing to
having been overcome by 'styana' 182 and 'middha',I 85 one's
mind does not get clearly absorbed in holding on to the prop
or 'alambana', then either through cont~mplation ('bhavana ')
on a luminous cognition ('aloks samjiia') or through a mental
visualisation of a supremely joyous object like Buddha etc.
and by so calming down 'laya' or mental lethargy, one should
again firmly hold on to the 'alambana'.
When the mind looks naughty in between through some
remembrance of a previous joy or enjoyment one should
reflect on the 'samvega' 184 of 'anityata~ or transitoriness and
calm down its naughtiness. Then, one must try to persuade
the mind towards that very prop (alambana) without
'abhisamskara' 185 or variation.
When the mind, shorn of both lethargy and insolence
appears to be properly engaged of its own volition, 186 then,
through suspension of 'abhoga' 187 or effort, detachment
should be practised. When 'satyabhoga' 188 or true effort
(after pacifying 'laxity etc.) is practised in a state of 'sama-
pravritti'189 or balance, 'vik5epa' 190 or mental confusion (i.e.
complicated samadhi-state) occurs, (i.e. the mind is
When the mind, without 'abhisamskara' or variation and of
its own volition, becomes engaged in that very 'alambana' one
should consider 'samatha' or abiding calm as achieved. The
nature of 'samatha' is the one-pointedness of the mind,
a characteristic common to all types of tranquillity, its
'alambana' is not fixed, though~ The Lord has spoken ofthis
path in Arya-prajiiaparamita etc. also. He says, "(the sekeer)
ftxes ('sthapita') his mind there, establishes ('samsthapita') it,
pinpoints ('avasthapita') it, houses ('upasthapita') it, controls
('damana') it, calms ('santa') it, stills ('vyupasanta') it,
concentrates (' ekagra ') and rests in meditative equipose
('Samahita')". ThUs described in nine nomenclatures.
Now, here 'sthapayati' means 'binds the mind to theBHA VANAKRAMA-1
'alambana': 'samsthapayati' means 'to engage the mind to that
prop or 'alambana' systematically; 'avasthapayati' means 'on
discovering confusion, removes it; 'upa-sthapayati means
'again ftxes the mind to that very 'alambana' after removing
'vikSepa'; 'damayati' means 'generates 'rati' or desire for the
prop; 'sainayati' means 'subdues 'a-rati' or non-desire (for
alambana) after observing the faults of 'vik5epa' (deviation)';
'vyupasamayati' means, 'calms down indolence and do-
nothing-ness that have crept in', 'ekoti-karoti' means 'tries to
enter the 'alambana' without 'abhisamskara'; 'samadadhati'
means 'practises 'upekSa' after attaining tranquillity of mind or
'chitta-samata', that is, practises withdrawal from the world or
'samanvakaraQ.a' . 191 These are the meanings (of the above
terms) as given by Arya Maitreya and by former acharyas.
Briefly speaking, all samadhis have six faults: 192 sloth,l 9 ~
forsaking the 'alambana' 1 ?4 mentallethargy, 195 insolence, 196
non-effort 197 and effort. 198 To overcome or wipe out these
'do~as' one must meditate on the eight eraser-samskaras, 199
which are faith, 200 desire to act, 201 industriousness, 202
alacrity, 203 non-forgetfulness, 204 alertness,Z 05 mental
refinement 206 and equanimity. 207 Of these, the first four are
an antidote to 'kausidya' or sloth. Thus, through 'sraddha' or
faith, accompanied by indications of the generation of correct
knowledge 208 of the efficacy of samadhi, the yogi's will to
practise it is born; from will or desire ('abhil~) one should
commence the cultivation of 'veerya' or effort. Through
effort one attains bodily and mental activity. Activeness of
body and mind removes slothfulness. Therefore, 'sraddha'
etc. should be contemplated upon for the sake of warding off
'kausidya' or sloth etc. 'Smriti' or non-forgetfulness is the
opposite of the giving up of 'alambana'. 'Samprajfiaya' or
awareness is the opposite of mental lethargy and insolence,
because it clearly exposes the reality of both. If mental
lethargy and insolence are not subdued, the fault of
'anabhoga' 2 '~J accurs. As opposite to it, 'chetana' or mental
alertness should be contemplated upon. When mental sloth
and insolence are romoved and the mind becomes calm, the32
fault of 'abhoga' 210 accurs. To oppose it, one must
contemplate on 'upekSa' or detachment.
Samadhi, comprising these eight eraser samskaras, is
most efficacious. It generates qualities like 'riddhi' 211 etc.
Hence it is said in siitra: "a person equipped with the eight
eraser samskaras contemplates on the state of 'riddhi'. Such
concentration of the mind accompanied by more and more of
activity212 with the association of such qualities or 'guQaS' as
'alambana' attains the designation of 'dhyana', 'aru pi-
samapatti'213 and 'vimok5a'. 214
In this manner when 'upeksa' or detachment is
accompanied by 'vedana ' 215 or awareness and becomes
rational and meaningful it is called 'anagamya',216 inaccessible
or un-deftnable, because 'chitta' or mind is the 'prayoga' or
subject of the First Dhyana. 217 To be free from 'kama tri~na·
(hankering after desires) and 'papa-dharma' (evil proclivities
of the mind), to keep linked with logic, reflectiveness, joy,
happiness and inner bliss is designated as First Dhyana. Also,
the first dhyana being devoid of 'vitarka' is called
'dhyanantara' or mid-dhyana. When it is without 'vichara' or
reflection and 'vitarka' or reason and becomes free from the
desire of staying in the First Dhyana stage, is accompanied by
the bliss of the joy of devotion and of spirituality, it is called
Second Dhyana. When it becomes free from the desire of
staying in the Second Dhyana stage and accompanied by joy,
detachment, recollectedness and awareness- 'sukha'
'upeksa', 'smriti' and 'samprajanya'- it is called Third
Dhyana. When it is free from the desire of staying in the Third
Dhyana stage and is accompanied by non-dukha, non-sukha
feelings, 'upeksa and 'smriti', it is called Fourth Dhyana.
Thus, the mind should be linked with ·'arupya smapatti' or
formless meditation and dominant 218 'ayatanas' 219 or
entrances of release etc. in accordance with the distinctions
of 'alambana' and 'akara' 220 or form.
So, after stabilizing the mind in the 'alambana', one
should analyse with (discriminating) wisdom so that, through
the bliss of the dawn of the light of 'jiiana', the seed of theBHAVANAKRAMA-1
delusion is totally eradicated; otherwise, as in the case if
'tirthikas', there can be no removal of klesas merely through
'samadhi'. As has been said in Samadhiraja-siitra: "bhavana'
may be practised in such samadhi but it will-not spell the loss
of 'atma-samjfta' 221 or body-consciousness. It will again
agitate the 'klesas' as during 'undreka 222 samadhi' bhavana or
over-mentalisation in meditational process."
'Prajna-bhavana-krama' or the sequence of meditation on
'prajfta has been briefly indicated in Arya Lankavatara: "on
taking to the 'chitta-matra' 223 (path), one should not dwell in
'bahyartha' or only apparent meaning (of phenomenon); by
stabilizing oneself on the 'alambana' of 'tathata' 224 one should
go beyond the bounds of 'mind only'. After crossing over the
mind only path one should go beyond the 'nirabhasa'. 225 "
The yogi who stays in the 'nirabhasa' or a state 'of non-
fallacious appearances' will see 'mahayana'. Purified by
'praQ.idhana' or vows, the state of satiety is stilled. One
cannot experience the noble non-souP 26 soul 'jftana' in a
state of 'nirabhasa'.
This is what the aforesaid means: at ftrst the yogi should
reflect over those external meanings which have been
superimposed by others over dharmas with form, that is,
whether they are different from cognition ('vijftana ') or that
they are vijftana itself appearing as such as if in the dream
state. Then, he should consider them with respect to their
atoms in accordance with 'vijnana; observing the atoms in
their parts, the yogi will not find those superimposed
meanings. Not fmding them there, he will so conclude that all
this is mind only and that there is no external meaning or
substance at all. Therefore, it has been said: "one should not
imagine external meanings on ascending the mind-only
path". That is, one must give up 'vikalpas' or superimposed
nomenclatures of dharmas with form. To reflect on those
'bhavas' or phenomena with apparent or super-imposed
meanings leads to the disappearance of those meanings.
Having thus reflected over dharmas with form, one
should analyse dharmas without form. One who remains only34
a 'chitta-matrin' cannot become a 'grahaka' or receiver in the
absence of that which could be the 'grahya' or the receivable
as the recepient has always to depend on an object which is
to be received. Therefore, it must be concluded that the mind
is devoid of the functions of the both the 'grahya' and the
'grahaka'; it is 'advya' or non-dual. 'Advya' is defined as
"sticking on to the prop of 'tathata ', one must go lxfyond the
'chittmatra' stage too". The attitude of the 'receiver' should
be over-stepped. It means that the non-cognisance of duality
should be based on the knowledge of duality.
In this manner, after crossing over the 'chitta-matra'
stage, one should also go beyond the non-dual cognition
stage, because there is no generation of 'bhavas' either by
themselves or through another agent and the 'grahya' and the
grahaka' are illusionary, non-existent. Because they are
dissimilarv from what they appear, their truth or reality is
also not opposite. In 'advya jftana' 228 or non-dual compre-
hension also, the feeling of existence in substance should be
abandoned which means that one should stay in the
'nirabhasa jftana' or non-apparent knowledge of 'advya' or
non-duality. By so doing, the mind gets stabilized in the
realisation of the 'nissvabhavata' of all dharmas. Such a
person, owing to his access to the 'paramatattva' or the
ultimate essence (of things), enters 'nirvikalpa samadhi' or
When the yogi is established in the 'nirabhasa joana of the
non-dual cognition he also gets established in the
'paramtattva' 229 - the ultimate or supreme essence (reality);
he sees 'mahayana'. Realising the 'paramatattva' is called
Mahayana. His 'paramtattva darsana' or experiencing the
ultimate reality is this that, analysing all dharmas or phe-
nomena with the eye of 'prajna', he sees the truth in the light
of 'samyaka jftana' 230 or ultimate knowledge. So it is said in
the sutra: "what is 'parmartha darsanama' or seeing the
supreme or ultimate truth of things? (it is) the non-seeing of
all dharmas." Herein is indicated such type of 'non-seeing'
(as described above) and not the non-seeing (blindness) orBHAVANAKRAMA-1
ignorance of those who, with eyes shut like the born blind,
see nothing owing to the bafflement 231 of 'pratyayas' and
non-mentalisation of phenomena.
The yogi will remain in bondage, like a person who has
arisen from 'asaiijyi' samapatti 1, 232 owing to the non-removal
of 'vasana' or desire for fixation in things born of contrariety
('viparyasa'), because in 'bhavas' themselves are created the
basic fixations of the 'klesa' mass or mental defilements of
'riiga' 233 (attachment, addiction) etc.: It has been said in Arya-
satya-dvaya-nirdesa etc.: "the root of 'raga' etc. is fixation in
'bhavas' ," What has been said in Avikalpa-pravesa-dharani
etc. (about the yogi 'stopping through non-mentalisation such
things as the objects of form etc. refers to that 'anupalabdhi'
(absence of substantial existence) which comes only through
an examination with 'prajiia' and the non-mentalisation of
that alone; it does not merely refer to the absence of
mentalisation. Fixation in 'riipa' or form etc., which has been
there from time immemorial, cannot be eradicated, like
'asanjiii samapatti' etc. merely by abandoning mentalisation."
It is not possible to remove the 'manasikara' or
mentalisation generated by previous 'abhinive5a' or fixations in
'riipa' (form) etc. without the removal of doubts just as there
can be no extinction of the fact of burning unless fire is
removed. It is not possible to take out these false 'vikalpas'
or contrary alternatives of form etc. from the mind as though
plucking out a thorn with our own hands. How, then (to do it)?
(It is done) by removing the seeds of doubt. The yogi, after
examining through the eyes of 'prajiia' these seeds of doubt
and their formerly acquired form etc. and such as those
whose non-acquiredness is experienced in the moment of
acquirement, can of course remove them like the cognition of
the serpent in the rope and in no other manner. Similarly,
when the seed of doubt is removed, one can abandon the
mentalisation of the objects of form etc. also and in no other
manner. Were it not so then, in the absence of the glow of
samadhi and not seen even by the eye of wisdom, the yogi's
doubt about the existence of form etc. is not removed like36
that of a person in a blind well (of ignorance) feeling doubts
about the pots etc. lying in the house. When such doubt is not
removed, he will become a person whose 'timir-do~' 2 34 or
clouded eyesight is not removed and who remains
susceptible to fixation in false insubstantial forms, which
cannot be castigated by anyone. Therefore, by clasping the
mind with the hand of 'samadhi' and with the help of the very
subtle weapon of 'prajna' one should eradicate the seeds of
the disease of false 'vikalpas' or alternatives present in the
mind; just as uprooted-trees do not again take root in the earth
so also will false 'vikalpas' be not born in the mind. Hence, in
order to remove the 'avarar:ta' or the overlying crust of false
appearances the Lord has pointed out the 'yuganadha 235 -
vahi-marga (two-fold single path) of 'samatha' (equipoise)
and 'vipasyana' (insight), because "these two are the cause
of absolute knowledge ('avikalpa-jftana')." As is said in the
sutra: "Samadhi is attained through staying in 'Sila'; through
samadhi comes 'prajfta bhavana or contemplation on
wisdom; through 'prajfta' comes absolute knowledge; a
person with absolute knowledge attains the wealth of 'Sila'."
In this manner, when the mind lias been stabilized in the
'alambana' through equipoise ('samatha'), the glow of
ultimate 'jftana' is born after deliberation through 'prajfta'.
When this glow shines, the cover (avaraQ.a) is lifted like the
disappearance of darkness. Therefore, both these 'samatha'
ami prajfta', like the eye and the light, are mutually beneficial
in the generation of right knowledge. There is no
contradiction between the two as between light and darkness
inspite of the difference in their 'guQ.as' or characteristics.
'Samadhi' is not of the nature of darkness. What is it, then? It
is of the nature of the concentration of mind. "Being in
equipoise, it knows the reality (of things)." In accordance
with this assertion, it i.e. 'samadhi' gets totally identified with
'prajfta'; it is not contradictory to it. When a 'samahita' or a
person of staid mind examines with his 'prajfta' there will be
no acquirement 236 of all dharmas. That, in itself, is the
supreme non-acquirement 237 or perception. Such aBHAVANAKRAMA-1
staidness 238 indicating stage of the yogi is (a state oO
'anabhoga' 239 or total-satiety, because nothing beyond it
remains to be experienced. 'Santa' or tranquil (state) is the
cessation of all such contrary frauds 2411 as those of 'bhava' 241
or is-ness and 'abhava' 242 or is-not-ness.
Thus, when the yogi does not find any inherent existence
of things after examining through 'prajiia' (wisdom), he
experiences no contrariety of 'bhavas' nor does he
experience the 'vikalpa' of 'abhava'. If is-ness or 'bhava' is
noticed anywhere, its stoppage or cessation will produce an
alternative (vikalpa'). However, if by examining through
'prajna' the yogi discovers no is-ness of things in the three 243
times, how can there be any opposing alternative of the same
as is-not-ness or 'abhava'? So, other 'vikalpas' also will not
touch him owing to the permeableness 244 of 'vikalpas' of
'bhava' and 'abhava'. There can be no 'vyapaka' 24 5 or a
permeable2 46 entity. So, this is the supreme immaculate yoga.
For a yogi stabilized in that (i.e. immaculate yoga) all
contradictions or alternatives having been eradicated, his
'jiieyavarat)a' 247 or cover of cognition and 'klesavarat)a' 248 or
cover of mental defilement are totally destroyed. It has been
said in Arya satya-dvya nirdesa etc. also that the root of
'klesavarat)a' is the superimposition of 'bhava' etc. on
uncreated, non-existent things or phenomena.
Through this yoga practice by removing all contrarities of
'is-ness', all contradictions of 'is-ness' etc., the ignorance-
natured roots of 'klesavarat)as' are totally destroyed. As has
been stated in Arya satya-dvaya nirdesa: "0 Manjusri! how
can 'klesa' or mental defilement be suppr~ssed?" How are
'klesas' discovered?' Manjusri replied, 'in the ultimate sense,
there is a false superimposition (on things) through
'samvrita'l 49 or the apparent over totally unborn, uncreated
and non-existent dharmas. This false superimposition gives
rise to 'samkalpa' and 'vikalpa ' 2511 premise and counter-
premise; 'sankalpa' and 'vikalpa' give rise to 'ayonisa
mansikara' 251 or un-meditational mentalisation, which gives
rise to 'atma-samaropa' or the superimposition of a self (or38
entity on phenomena); 'atma-samaropa' gives rise to 'dri1jiti-
paryuthhana ' 252 or sight distraction; this sight-distraction
generates 'klesas. 0 devaputra! in the ultimate sense, he
alone is un-superimposed who realises all dharmas to be
totally unborn, uncreated. He who, in the ultimate sense, is
un-superimposed is without 'vikalpa'. He who is free from
'vikalpa' is meditationally balanced. He who is medita-
tionally balanced can never have self-superimposition. He
who is free from the superimposition of a self does not suffer
from 'dhyana pariyuthhana'. In the ultimate sense, 'dristi-
paryuthhana' or sight-distraction does not take place till one
sees 'nirvat)a'. So his 'klesa' must be seen as 'vineeta' or
highly subdued, staid as he is in the 'anutpada' or uncreated
realm. Such a one is called 'klesa-vinaya' or one with
subdued defilements. 0 devaputra! when he, through his
'nirabhasa jnaiia' or knowledge bereft of (fallacious)
appearances (kno'Vledge of emptiness), realises to be totally
void, non-existent and uncreated in the ultimate sense, he,
0 devaputra! understands the 'klesas'. The rogue who
knows the class of the serpent will also cure the venom of
the serpent. Similarly, 0 devaputra! he who thoroughly
understands the 'gotra' or class of 'klesas', his klesas are
removed, become 'santa' (quiet)." Devaputra said,
"0 Manjusri! What is the 'gotra' of 'klesas'?" Manjusri
replied, "0 devaputra! all superimpositions on dharmas,
which are totally unborn, uncreated and non-existent in the
ultimate sense are the 'gotras' (classes, castes) of 'klesas'."
Thus stated at length.
When 'bhavas' etc. are overthrown, and because
'viparyasa' 253 or. contrariety is all-pervasive, with this over-
throw all contrary 'avart)as' are also overthrown and the
cognitive cover will also be adequately removed because
'avaft:las' are of the quality of contrariety. With removal of the
cognitive cover and impediment removed the glow of 'jiiana'
spreads in front of the yogi like a ray of the sun spreading
speedily all over a cloudless sky. Thus, 'vijiiana' 254
(consciousness, cognitive knowledge) is, by nature,BHAVANAKRAMA-1
effulgent but that effulgence does not shine forth owing to
impediments. Un-hindered, why will not that 'subtle
(achintya) ', 255 with its especial capacity regained, not
illumine everything as such? Therefore, 'sarvajiiata' is
attained by obtaining the true knowledge of things in both
the apparent (' samvrita ') and the ultimate (' paramartha ')
sense. So, this is the supreme path for the removal of
'avan:ms' and the attainment of 'sarvajfiata'.
In the 'sravaka' path etc., owing to the non-eradication of
all the contrarities ('viparyasa'), the two 'avaraQ.as' are not
properly removed. As has been said in Arya-Lanka-vatara
etc.: "other people get to know 'nirvaQ.a' by observing all
dharmas as subject to 'hetu' or cause; however, 0 mahamati!
they cannot attain emancipation ('moksa'), because they do
not realise the non-self nature of dharmas. 0 mahamati
(greatly wise)! a person in sravaka-yana possessing an
intellect which stays in the experience of correct 256 'satyas'
attains release 257 even in non-release. 258 0 mahamati!
here one must try to avert 259 faulty vision 260 or outlook
(i.e. adherence to wrong dQctrine)." As there is no 'moksa'
through other vehicles, the Lord has here said, "there is only
P~ths like 'sravaka-yana' etc. have been propounded
only by the ignorant for the instruction of the ignorant, such
(things) as that 'skandhas' 261 etc. are only dharmas and there
is no 'self' (atma). So thinking, a 'sravaka' enters 'pudgala
nairatmya', 262 the non-self concept of a thing; that the
threefold 263 'dhatu'-division of the world is only 'vijiiapti' 264
(mental phenomena); so thinking, he enters the 'nairatmya'
of a vijiianavadin, 265 which deals only with 'bahyartha' or
apparent phenomena. Now, by his entering the 'nairatmya'
or non-self aspect of non-dual (advya) knowledge in the
aforesaid manner, he enters the 'paramatattva' or the
supreme truth of things. Entering the supreme truth is not
merely entering mental cognition ('vijiiapti'). It has been
said in Arya-lokottara-parva. "Moreover, 0 jinaputra!
'traidhatuka' manifests in the 'chitta-matra' and that mind40
also appears in the shape of 'ananta-madhyataya' (without an
end, without a middle). The (two) 'antas' 266 (ends) being of
the quality of generation 267 and dissolution and the
'madhya'(middle) being devoid of the quality of staying, the
mind is 'ananta-madhya', i.e. without ends, without middle".
Therefore, to enter the non-dual 'jiiana' is to enter the
'tattva,' the reality of things."
If it is asked: "how does a yogi's state get so refmed?", the
answer is: 'it is refmed by 'praQ.idhana' or the vow to tread
the road to the goal'. The vow that the bodhisattvas have
taken to serve all sentient beings through 'mahakaruQ.3', by
practising more and more of such 'kusalas' as 'dana' etc., on
the strength of that vow, the yogi's state will become refmed.
So long as the dependence on all beings is not eradicated
even after the realisation of the 'nissvabhavata' of all
dharmas, he continues to be in 'samsara' till the end, being
engrossed with the faults of the cyclic round (' samsara ').
How is this supreme knowledge full of total satiety and
tranquillity? The reason for its being so is stated below: (the
yogi) sees the noble 'niratma jnana' through, 'nirabhasa' or a
non-fallacious view of things.' Therefore, the noble non-dual
'jnana', which is acceptable to the non-dualists in the ultimate
sense, is also non-self (nairatmya'). The yogi sees the
'nissvabhava' through his knowledge of the 'advya
nirabhasa' or non-dual, non-fallacious meditation experi-
ence. Afterwards, it becomes total satiety ('anabhoga')
because nothing else remains to be seen and it is called
'santa' (still, calm) because of the absence of any 'vikalpa' or
Now, here it may be asked: ''What yogi is such as 'sees'?"
(The answer is): in the 'paramartha' or ultimate sense no self
('atma') etc. has an independent entity nor does the yogi
'see' an}'thing. However, in the 'samvrita' or apparent sense,
just as, with the mere generation of the knowledge of the
form of things with form, it is only cognition ( vijnana) which
appears in these different forms like one seeing a Deva-datta
or a Yajiia-datta through rognition (of their forms); there is noBHAVANAKRAMA-1
such thing as a self. So also here the yogi sees the generation
of 'advya nir.ibhasa jfi.ana' or the non-dual non-fallacious
knowledge. Thus said: "In spite of all dharmas being non-
existent in the ultimate sense, awareness of 'samvriti' is not
undesirable whether it is a common person or a yogi". As has
been stated at length in 'Aryasatya-dvaya nirde5a': it is, in the
ultimate sense, totally non-existent but even so it seeks the
way through 'samvriti', apparent truth.
What about the order of 'sravakas', 'pratyeka-buddhas',
'bodhisattvas', Buddhas and the common people, then? That
which has no 'karai)a' (cause) in 'samvriti' (the apparent) is
unborn even in 'samvriti' as in the case of the horns of a hare
etc. That which has a cause must be born even though it may
not be true in the ultimate sense just as an illusion, a
reflection, an echo. Owing to their being un-analysable,
illusion etc. inspite of their dep~ndent origination 268 in the
'samvriti', are not truly existent in the ultimate sense.
Therefore, the entire 'jagata' 269 has been designated as
'maya' or illusion. just as the illusion of birth takes place in
the case of sentient beings because of the illusion of 'klesas'
and 'karma', so also 'jfi.ana maya' 270 or the illusion of
knowledge envelops the yogis because of the illusion of the
aCCUJilulation of 'punya' (virtue) and 'jfi.ana' (knowledge). As
has been said in Arya-prajfi.a-paramita "0 Subhuti! thus all
dharmas are 'nirmaQa'(conjectured creation). Some are
created by 'sravakas', some by 'pratyeka-buddhas', some by
'kle5as' and some by 'karmas'. In this manner, 0 Subhuti! all
dharmas are 'nirmita', 271 of conjectured existence." The
difference between the yogis and the common people is that
the former do not regard that illusion to be true, because like
the illusion-maker magician they know all illusions as such;
that's why they are called yogis. Those who are foolish like
the common people take that frivolous 272 play to be the truth
and, because of their belief in the contrary, are called
ignorant. It has been said in Arya-dharma-sangiti: "just as a
magician tries to seek release from (the idea oO creation (of
his illusion), he does not feel any attachment (for his maya-42
creation), because he knows it (to be illusory) from the very
beginning. The person who has attained true enlighten-
ment,273 knowing 'tri-bhava' 274 to be only illusory, puts on a
guise for the world while already aware of the reality of the
The 'tattva' (of all dharmas) should be meditated upon in
When mental lethargy ('laya') and excitement ('audhatya')
arise during meditation, they should be quietened down as
before. The two-fold single path of '5amatha' and 'vipa§yana'
tranquillity and perceptive insight - is completed when
'jiiana', shorn of 'laya' and 'audhatya', enters 'anabhi-
samskara'275 (immaculate) state with the 'alambana' of the
'nissvabhavata of all dharmas. And, as long as possible, the
practitioner should stay in the 'adhimukti bhiimi' 276 through
the force of 'adhimukti' 277 and 'sarar:ta-gama',- faith and
devotion. After this, without giving up the lotus posture, the
practitioner may, if desired, contemplate as under in the
'vyuthhana' or rising-up state: 'If all these dharmas are
'nissvabhava' or insubstantial in the ultimate sense, do they
still exist in the 'samvriti' (apparent) aspect?' It has been said
in Arya-ratna-megha: how does a bodhisattva become
proficient in 'nairatmya' (non-self doctrine)? 0 Kulaputra! the
bodhisattva examines 'riipa' (form) with right wisdom,
examines 'vedana' 278 (feeling), 'sanjiia' 279 (cognition) and
'samskara ' 280 and observing these fonns, he does not notice
any generation of form, does not find cessation ('nirodha'), 281
does not find 'samudaya' 282 (aggregation). This is due to the
establish-ment of his 'prajna' or wisdom in 'paramartha' and
not because of his natural wont." This has been stated in
detail. However, the ignorant persons, by attributing a false
substantiality to non-existent things, continue to wander in
cyclic rounds, experiencing countless dukhas. Keeping this
in mind and addressing 'mahakaruJ)a' one must reflect:
'I shall do that by which I may attain the true knowledge of all
dharmas so that I could instruct these (ignorant) persons in
'dharmata' (the true nature of dharmas, which is emptiness)'.BHA VANAKRAMA-1
After offering worship and prayers to all the Buddhas and
bodhisattvas, one should undertake the great vow ('maha-
praQ.idhana') of noble, virtuous conduct ('bhadracharya'). 283
Then he should engage himself in the collection of all such
accumulations of merit and 'jiiana' like 'dana' etc. whose
core is emptiness and compassion, 'sunyata' and 'karuQ.a.' As
, has been said in Arya-dharma-samgiti: "the bodhisattva who
sees 'yatha-bhutas' (the reality of things), i.e. emptiness, 284
feels great compassion ('mahakaruQ.a') towards beings and
he says to himself, 'I must make all beings experience the joy
of that samadhi which makes one realise the true state of all
phenomena." Goaded by this great compassion, he attains
transcendental, true enlightenment ('anuttara samyaka
sambodhi '), 285 after fulfilling the three-fold 286 teachings:
'adhiSila,' 'adhichitta' and 'adhiprajna' teachings: on conduct,
teachings on samadhi.and teachings on wisdom.
Such is the two-fold-single path of bodhisattvas comprising
'prajna' and 'upayaya', which does not sever 'samvriti' or its
prop of the apparent even after realising 'paramartha'. The
'mahakaruQ.a' of one who does not cut off 'sap1vriti' gets
engaged in action for beings by becoming 'purva-gamini' 287
(forward leading) without contradictions or contrarities. It has
been said in A.rya-ratna-megha: "how does a bodhisattva
become proficient in Mahayana? Well, in Mahayana, the
bodhisattva instructs himself in all teachings but does not take to
the path of instruction. He does not take to even that what he
learns; he does not take to even that which is taught. He
does not fall into 'uchheda-dri~ti' (disturbed view) with
respect to 'hetu' 21111 (cause), 'pratyaya'2B'J (factor) and 'nidana' 290
Oinks of causation)." It is said in A.rya-dharma-samgiti: ''What is
the 'pratipatti' (perception, attainment) of a bodhisattva? Now,
whatever way the bodhisattvas act through body, speech and
mind, they do so with reference to the 'sattvas,' because
'mahakaruQ.a' leads ('purvangama') 291 and they are under the
command of 'maha-karuna' born of the aim of giving joy to all
beings." A person with such a beneficial aim thinks: "I have to
realise that 'pratipatti' which is beneficial to and confers joy on44
all 'sattvas'." He possesses the perception of looking at
'skandhas' as illusion but does not wish to give up 'skandhas'.
He possesses the perception of looking at 'dhatus' as serpent
venom but does not wish to give up 'dhatus'. He possesses the
perception of looking at 'ayatanas ' 292 as empty entities but does
not wish to give up 'ayatanas. He has the perception of looking
at forms as the manes of foam but does not give up the
realisation or 'sadhana' ('vithapana') of Tathagata's 'riipa-
kaya.295 He possesses the 'pratipatti' of looking at 'vedana' as a
bubble but it is not the non-emergence of the joy accruing from
meditational absorption ('samapatti') of Tathagata 's 'dhyana'
and 'samadhi.' He has the 'pratipatti' of looking at 'samjiia' 294
(consciousness of an object) as a mirage but not as the non-
perception of the emergence of Tathagata 's 'jiiana'. He
possesses the 'pratipatti' of looking at 'samskaras' as a plantain
but not the non-perception of the refinement of Buddha-
dharma. He has the realisation of looking at 'vijiiana' as 'maya'
but not the non-perception of the fulfilment ('~patti') of karma
through body, speech and mind as its fore-runners." Thus said in
detail. The yogi should thus understand from these detailed
siitras the 'pratipatti' comprising 'upayaya' (means) and 'prajiia'
In this (process), if the practice of 'upayaya' is not possible
during the state of transcendental 'prajiia', but, at the time of
practising 'upayaya', the bodhisattva experiments with
transcendental 'jiiana' like a magician unaffected from the
true perception (of his work); and after the experiment, he
attains wisdom in the form of faith in and knowledge of the
'yathabhuta' (real) aspect of things. This is the very single
way (Marga), comprising the duo of 'prajiia' and 'upayaya'.
The two-fold single path of 'prajiia' and 'upayaya' as
indicated in Arya-akSayamati which says that the (akSaya) 295
state of samadhi, making one aware of these two (i.e. prajiia
and upayaya), should be followed. If the bodhisattva
meditates in this manner through the practice of such 'prajiia
and upayaya', for long, he will attain the twelve special
states. 296 These very states, with the consolidation of 'guJ:la5'BHAVANAKRAMA-1
further and furth~r, establish 'bhiimis' 297 from 'adhimukti-
charya bhumi' to 'Buddha-bhiimi' . 298
So long as a person does not realise the non-self aspect of
all dharmas he is in the 'dric;lhtara adhimukti' 299 stage only.
When, impregnable to 'mara' 300 etc., the reality ('tattva') is
contemplated upon with the force of 'adhimukti' (devotion,
faith) then, through the means of the ftrm 'adhimukti' stage
('bhumi'), the conduct ('charya') for 'adhimukti' is
.established. Arya-ratna-megha describes how, even as a
common person, a bodhisattva can become equipped in this
'bhumi' with several qualities like 'samadhi', 'dharal).i', 301
'vimoksa', 302 'abhijna '303 etc. after crossing all adversities of
Now, with the four-fold state comprising 'mridu',3 04
'madhya', 3°5 'adhimatra '3o6 and 'adhimatrata ', 307 the four
faculties capable of piercing truths are attained. When
a little of the sphere of 'jfiana' becomes clear after the
apparent connotation (of things) is removed, the probing
faculty, ('nirvedha-bhagiya')308 called 'ii~mgata' 309 is born. It
is termed as 'the samadhi' which has attained light' (aloka-
labdha ') in Mahayana. When that very sphere of
enlightenment ('jfiana-loka') becomes clear in a medium
way, it is called 'miirdhana 310 nirvedha-bhagiya'; it is also
called 'enhanced-light samadhi' ('vridhaloka samadhi'). 311
When that sphere of light becomes clearer and is not
reflected in the external meaning of things, it becomes
'ksanti-nirvedhiya' 312 owing to the presence still of 'vijiiana';
it is also termed as 'eka-desa-pravi~ta samadhi, 313 because
the yogi enters the state of the non-attainment of the 'grahya'
(the object). When the non-dual ('advya'), 'jnana', born of
(the concept oO 'grahya' and 'grahaka', the object and the
holder, shines forth, it is called 'agradharma nirvedha
vahini'; 314 it is also called 'anantarya samadhi', 315 because the
essence of things ('tattva') is entered into after it. Thus far is
the 'adhimukti charya bhumi'.
Other 'bhumis' are established, in brief, as complete with
eleven 'angas' .316 Here, the first 'bhumi' is established after46
the attainment of the essence of the non-self aspect of
'pudgala' and 'dhannas'. So, when, after the 'agra-dharmas',m
an absolutely clear knowledge realising the insubstantiality
of all 'dharmas' dawns as supra-mundane joana, shorn of all
deceit, the true realisation of the bodhisattva, having entered
the faultless or immaculate state and having generated the
'dar5ana-marga, 318 enters the first 'bhumi'. Therefore it is that
in this 'bhumi', the bodhisattva feels joy ('pramudita') owing
to his realisation of the unknown 'tattva' or essence for the
first tme. Hence, this stage is called 'pramudita'. 319 One and
twelve repugnant-to-sight 'klesas' are destroyed during this
Other 'bhumis' are, in consonance with the 'bhavana
marga', the path of meditational contemplation. The sixteen
'klesas' born of three 'dhatus' and which are repugnant to
'bhavana' are destroyed in them. Herein 'dana-paramita' or
the Perfection of giving is more predominant owing to the
bodhisattva's tendency towards others' welfare like his own
and his awareness of the arising 320 of 'dharmadhatu'. 321
However, even after knowing the essence of 'bodhi', the
bodhisattva stays in the frrst 'bhumi' so long as he is unable to
roam in 'recollectedness' (' samprajiiaya ') during his
deviations from subtle meditation. When he is able to do so,
he enters the second 322 'bhumi' with all its 'angas'3 2 3
complete. Therefore, during this stage, 'sila-paramita' is
more predominent owing to 'a-samudachara' 324 born of
deviation from subtle meditation. This 'bhumi' is called
'vimala' as it is shorn of all the taints of unhealthy conduct.
He (i.e.) the practitioner roams about amid the
recollectedness of the deviations from subtle meditation. So
long as he is not capable of amalgamating all worldly
meditations and owning the meaning of all that he has heard,
he stays in the second 'bhumi'. When he is capable, he is
established in the third stage, all his components ('angas')
completed. 'Ksanti-paramita' or the Perfection of
Forbearance is predominent in this 'bhumi' owing to the
bodhisattva's tolerance of all sufferings for the sake ofBHAVANAKRAMA-1
'practising' 325 what he has heard (from scriptures and
instructors) and the accumulation of all worldly meditations.
This stage is called 'prabhakari ', because it brings about
unlimited transcendental knowledge as a beneficial result of
these 'samadhis •.
He remains in the third stage in spite of attaining all
worldly absorptions so long as he is not capable of roaming
about frequently with his already achieved 'dharmas'
conducive to the bodhi path and of equanimity in the mind
with respect to all kinds of 'dharmas' and absorptions. When
he becomes capable of it, he enters the fourth 'bhumi', all his
'angas' completed. In this stage 'veerya-paramita' or the
Perfection of valour is predominent because of his roaming in
the midst of bodhi-inducing 'dharmas~ and his constantly
correct overpowering of the frivolities 326 of body, speech
and mind. This stage is called 'archi~mati' because of its
capacity to bum away the fuel of 'klesas' and generate the
light ofbodhi-inducing 'dharmas'. He roams constantly amid
bodhi-inducing dharmas. He stays in the fourth stage. So long
as he is incapable of turning his mind away from the world
and towards 'nirv~' by meditating on the 'satyas' 3Z7 and on
the assiduously accumulated bodhi introducing 'dharma', he
stays in the fourth 'bhumi'. When he becomes capable of it,
he is established in the fifth stage, all his components
('angas') having been completed. This (stage) is called
'sudurjaya', accumulated after a lot of effort, is won with
'Dhyana-paramita' or the Perfection of meditation
becomes predominent in this stage by contemplation again
and again on the akara' or the (constituent) form of the four
arya-satyas' and he (i.e. the bodhisattva) becomes a frequent
wanderer in the assiduously collected 'bodhi' path. He is in
the fifth 'bhumi' so long as he is unable to enter the
absorption of 'a-nimitta', 328 roaming through the creations of
a 'nirvatsaka' 329 mind in order to enter 'samsara' through
analysis. When he is capable of it, he enters the sixth
'bhumi', all his 'angas' having been completed. lihis stagehas the preponderance of 'prajiia-paramita' or the Perfection
of wisdom owing to the bodhisattva's wandering in 'pratitya-
samutpad. Because of the pre-ponderance of 'prajfta-
paramita', he becomes prone towards all Buddha-dharmas.
Hence it is called 'abhimukti'.
He becomes the possesser of 'animitta-vihara'. 330 He
stays in the sixth stage as long as he is not capable of attaining
the absorption of unblemished roaming in the 'animitta'.
When he is able to, he is established in the seventh stage, all
his 'angas' having been completed. In this stage, the
bodh.isattva pierces all 'nimittas' (intentions) with 'animitta'
(non-intention) but does not forbid behaviours born of
'nimitta'. So, there is a pre-dominence of 'upayaya-paramita'
or the Perfection of means (effort) in this stage. Being
connected with the 'anabhoga marga' or the path of total
absorption and hence extremely inaccessible, the stage is
called 'durangama' (reaching afar).
He revels in the unblemished and the 'nimimitta' (i.e. a
stage wherein no causal dharmas affect). He remains in the
seventh stage so long as he is incapable of attaining the
absorption of the 'anabhoga-vahi-nirnimitta' stage (i.e. a state
of total satiety involving no causal dharmas). When he is able
to, he enters the eighth stage, that 'anga' or com-ponent
having been fulfilled. This 'bhumi' has the preponderance of
Aspirational Perfection (pranidhana paramita) owing to the
union of the beneficial aspect (kusala paksa) with satiety
('anabhoga'). This stage is called 'achala' owing to its
stability through 'animitta bhoga' (enjoyment based on no
nimitta, i.e. immaculate joy).
He becomes a rambler in 'anabhoga animitta'. So long as
he is incapable of submitting to do all types of 'dharma
desana' 331 based on the differences of components 332 and
derivations 333 etc. it is still his eighth stage. When he is able
to, that 'anga' having been completed, he is established in
the ninth stage. That stage has a preponderance of 'bala-
paramita' or th€? Perfection of power owing to the bodhi-
sattva being equipped with special powers of wisdom withBHA VANAKRAMA-1
the special force of insight. 334 Being proficient in all types of
dharma instruction and possessing the benefit of a special,
unblemished intellect, this 'bhumi' is called 'sadhumati'.
In this (stage) he (i.e. the bodhisattva) becomes a
beneficiary of the attainment of four experiences ('prati-
samvidas'). He stays in the ninth 'bhumi' so long as he is
incapable of showing 'buddha ksetra' , 335 'parshata, 536
'nirmaQa' 337 etc. and practising total 'dharma' sambhoga' and
'sattva-paripaka'. 338 When he is able to, he is established in
the tenth 'bhumi', this 'anga' having been completed. Here
the bodhisattva's 'jfiana-paramita' or the Perfection of
knowledge is pre-ponderant owing to his being equipped
with special knowledge for practising 'sattva-paripaka' or
the being's well-being. This (stage) is called 'dharma-megha'
as it rains a rain of exclusive 'dharma' on innumerable 'loka-
dhatus'. 539 These stages are attained by other methods also
like 'skandha-pariSuddhi'. 340 These are not being mentioned
here for fear of the book becoming voluminous.
Even after attaining 'nirmaQa-vasita' 341 etc., so long as the
power to generate enlightenment of all hues of 'asakta' 342
(unattached) and 'apratihata' 343 (invulnerable) types about
known phenomena is not born, it still is the tenth 'bhumi'.
When he is able to, he enters 'Buddha-bhumi', this 'anga'
having been completed. This order of 'bhumis' has been
given in Arya-sandhi-nirmochana. There is no stage higher
than this 'Buddha-bhumi' and no other 'bhumi' beyond it has
been propounded, because all forms of perfection reach
their apex in this 'bhumi'. Even the Buddhas cannot fully
describe the virtues of this Buddha-bhumi as they are of
immeasurable variety. How can, then, persons like me?
Even 'svayambhu Buddha' 344 cannot, while examining,
reach the ends of one virtue (of Buddha-bhumi'). Buddha-
dharmas are inexplicable. Only this can be said in brief that
Lord Buddha, reaching the utmost bounds of personal and
others' acquisitions, residing in the faith of removing all
faults, working through his 'sambhoga-kaya' 345 and 'nirmaQ.a-
kaya'346 in the 'anabhoga' form, by staying in his 'dharma-50
kaya '," 17 ministering to the well-be~g of the whole world,
will roam the world as long as it lasts. 1herefore, wise people
should generate faith in the lords who are the treasures of
virtue. They should try to practise those virtues in every
manner. 1he virtues of the three bodies ('tri-kaya') etc. are
not being stated here lest the book should become
May the world with little 'jiiana' soon attain supreme
intelligence from the little merit ('punya') that I (may) have
earned by describing this path of the 'jina-putras' in
accordance with siitras and 'naya' (the path). 1his synopsis of
'bhavana-krama' has been done by Kamalasila on the
command of King Devaraja.
End of Bhavanakrama-1BHA v ANAKRAMA- il
Salutations to Manjusri Kumarabhuta. 1
For those entering the path of Mahayana, 'bhavana-
krama' is being stated here in brief. Persons desirous of
attaining 'sarvajiiata' 2 as early as possible must endeavour to
practise 'hetus' (causes) and 'pratyayas' (factors) which help
achieve it. • Sarvajiiata' is not possible without • hetu ' 3
otherwise it would become attainable by everyone. There
can be no obstruction• in the feeling of detachment 5 as all do
not become 'sarvajiia'. Hence, everything depends on
'hetu', because anything may happen to anyone at any time.
'Sarvajiiata' too is possible only for someone some-what
somewhere. It does not occur at all times, nor at all places,
nor to everybody. Therefore, it is bound to be invariably
based on 'hetus' and 'pratyayas'. Of those causes and factors,
only those which are 'abhranta ' 6 and 'avikala ' 7 should be
practised. If one practises 'bhranta' or equivocal 'hetus',
there will be no achieving the desired result even after a long
time like (the effort oO drawing milk from horns. There is no
generation of fruit or result also without practising all the
'hetus', because there is no possibility of any sprouting in the
absence of any seeds etc. Therefore, one who desires that fruit
must practise all the 'hetu-pratyayas' 8 or causal factors which
What are the 'hetu-pratyayas' for attaining the fruit of
'sarvajiiata'? It may be said that a born-blind like me is
incapable of revealing them; even then, I shall reproduce from
the words of the Lorq only who,- after attaining supreme
enlightenment, uttered them for the benefit of (his)
disciples. 9 The Lord had said to them: '0 Guhyadhipati (the
lord of 'guhas')! that 'jiiana' of 'sarvajiiata' has compassion
('karuQii') as its root, bodhichitta as its 'hetu' and 'upayaya'
(practice or effort) as its end (pariavasana)' . 10 Hence, those
desirous of attaining 'sarvajiiata' should get educated in these
three: compassion, bodhi-mind and effort.
Inspired by compassion, the bodhisattvas will certainly52
undertake the vow to am eliorate the lot of all sentient
beings. Then, giving up selfish thoughts, they respectfully
engage themselves in the collection of extremely difficult
'jftana' and 'punyas' through a ceaseless and long period of
'sadhana'. Entering that 'sadhana', they are bound to realise
that accumulation of 'punya' and 'jnana' collections. When
'sambharas' 11 are completed, 'sarvajiiata' will be in hand.
Therefore, compassion being the root of 'sarvajftata', it
should be meditated upon from the very beginning as has
been said in Arya Dharma-samgiti: "0 Sir! the bodhisattvas
should not seek instruction in many dharmas. Sir, if a
bodhisattva adopts and realises one single dharma, all (other)
Buddha-dharmas will be in the palm of his hand. What is that
one dharma? It is 'mahakaruQ.a' or great compassion."
Owing to their acceptance of 'mahakaruQ.3.', the Buddhas
stay on till the end of even the world ('sattva-dhatu')1 2 inspite
of their having attained all the wealth (of 'punya') for
themselves. They do not even enter the supremely peaceful
city (of 'nirvaQ.a') as does a 'sravaka'. On seeing sentient
beings (in the midst of their sufferings) and because of their
abandoning that peaceful nirvaQ.a mansion like a lac house
('ayogriha')1 3 in flames, the lords' 'hetu' for their unaccepted
nirv3.Q.a is that very 'maha-karul}.3.' alone.
Now, the sequence of meditation on compassion has to
be stated, starting with the first inclination (' pravritti '). 14
Equanimity (of mind) IJlUSt first be practised by removing
attachment and hatred for all beings with the contemplation
of unconcern ('upeksa').
All beings desire happiness; they do not desire 'dukha'.
In the endless rounds of 'sam5ara', 15 there is no being who
has not been related to one a hundred times. So believing,
who could be very special to me? (That is, there is no
distinction between one being and another). Then, for whom
can there be attachment and for whom hatred? Hence, I must
have an attitude of equal-mindedness towards all beings. By
so contemplating and with a feeling of even-mindedness
(madhyastha-bhava), 16 I should practise equanimity of mindBHA V ANAKRAMA-11
towards friend and foe (alike). After that love ('maitri')
should be practised on realising equal-mindedness towards
'sattvas'. If the seed of compassion ('karur:ta') is sown after
irrigating the tendencies of the mind with the water of 'maitri'
and turning it into a golden piece of earth, the seed will
sprout with great felicity ('saralata'). 17 When the procreations
or tendencies of the mind 18 get saturated with love, 'karuQ.a'
should be meditated upon.
This 'karuQ.a' (compassion) is of the form of the desire to
abolish all 'dukhas' of all beings. All sentient beings of the
three worlds are greatly suffering from the triple 19 dukha; so
compassion should be meditated upon for all 'sattvas'. Now,
those who live· as hell-beings are constantly long-submerged
in such 'dukhas' as heat (i.e. fires) etc. This has been stated by
the Lord. Similarly, the 'pretas' (hungry ghosts), their bodies
emaciated with the dukha-fire of extreme hunger and
thirst etc.), are described as experiencing extreme suffering.
Even the beasts are seen experiencing many kinds of
'dukhas' like mutual devouring, anger, killings and violence
etc. Even human beings are seen experiencing immeasurable
sufferings from their penury, 20 from search for sensual
pleasure, treachery, hurt, 21 separation from loved ones,
association with un-loved ones and poverty etc.
Those whose minds are enveloped in various defilements
like attachment ('raga') etc. and those who are drowned
in many a deep deviation 22 are all seated on a precipice
('prapata')23 owing to the causes of 'dukha' (suffering) and are
really very miserable. Even the gods suffer from the dukha of all
kinds of 'vipariQ.ama' 24 or change (on ripening of the fruit of
action). How can the gods who roam about in the realm 25 of
desires be happy with their minds always baffled by the grief
of the fear of a fall and degradation (from their present
status). Sufferings born of mental constituents, which are the
cause of defilements generated by 'karma', are of dependent
nature and comprise of moment by moment transcience are
pervading the whole world. Therefore, seeing the entire
world engulfed by the flames of the fire of 'dukha' and54
thinking 'just as I do not relish dukha so don't others and as to
how these dear ones of mine (i.e. the 'sattvas') could be
released from 'dukha' and so equating their sufferings with
one's own, 'karuQi' of the type which may be instrumental in
removing their sufferings should be meditated upon whether
in the 'samadhi' state or during all other 'charyas' (conduct).
Keeping in mind the aforesaid 'dukha' experiences,
'karuQi bhavana' should, flfSt of all, be practised on friends.
Then, seeing no distinctions owing to the equality of all
beings and by thinking 'all beings are my friends', one should
meditate on the middle path ('madhyapaksa'). 26 When
'karuQ.a' is directed towards all beings as towards one's
friends, one should meditate on it for all the beings in the ten
directions. 27 When, like the mother of a beloved suffering
child, 'karuQ.a' of the form of the desire to uplift the beloved
one from his suffering, flowing spontaneously, is equitably
directed towards all 'sattvas', it is regarded as complete
(' ni~panna ') 28 and is designated as 'great compassion'
So, flfSt of all, the contemplation of love towards friends
is of the form of the desire for attaining joy. Step by step, it
should equally be done even for ordinary people as also for
one's enemies. By so practising this 'karuQ.a', the desire to
ameliorate the suffering of all sentient beings will be
Thus, after meditating on root-'karuQ.a' or basic
compassion, one should meditate on 'bodhichitta'. This
'bodhichitta' is of two kinds: apparent ('samvrita') and
ultimate ('paramartha'). Herein 'samvrita' comprises the
undertaking of the vow to work for the welfare of all beings
through compassion: 'May I become a Buddha for the
good of the world' - this is the first generation of the mind
(' chittotpad ')2 9 of the form of the desire for transcendental
enlightenment ('anuttar samyaka-sambodhi'). 30 This
generation of the mind should be practised by the 'bodhi-
sattva' through another learned scholar established in the
vow ('samvara') 31 of 'silsuddhi' (piety of conduct) andBHAVANAKRAMA-11
detachment etc. in accordance with the method indicated in
After generating 'samvrita' bodhichitta he (i.e. the
bodhisattva) should make efforts to generate 'paramartha'
bodhichitta. It has access to the ultimate meaning, is stainless
and stable and still like the flame of a lamp in windless calm.
Its realisation would be possible through meditation on the
union of 'samatha' and 'vipa8yana' constantly over a long
period coupled with reverence. As has been said in Arya
Sandhi-nirmochana: "0 Maitreya! whatever worldly and
other-worldly beneficent dharmas of the 'sravakas, the
'bodhisattvas' and the 'Tathagatas', -all are the fruit of
'samatha' and 'vipasyana', because these two are the
repositories of all samadhis' as was stated by the Lord in Arya
Sandhi-nirmochana itself: "Whatever the various samadhis' of
'sravakas', 'bodhisattvas' and 'Tathagatas' have been
indicated by me should always be regarded as attainable
through 'samatha' and 'vipa8yana'."
There can be no removal of 'avaraQ.a' or the delusive
cover for the yogis by contemplation on 'Sa.matha' alone; it
can merely be a suppression of 'klesas' or defilements.
There can be no real destruction of 'anusaya' 33 nor its
removal without the light of 'prajna' (wisdom). As has been
stated in Arya Sandhi-nirmochana: "klesas' are suppre¥ed
with 'dhyana', with 'prajiia' is destroyed 'anusaya'. 'Arya
Samadhiraja-siitra' also says: 'howsoever much this 'samadhi'
be contemplated upon, it will not destroy self-consciousness
( 'atma-samjna'). It will again incite 'klesas' as in the case of
Udraka 's 34 'samadhi-bhavana". However, if one observes the
non-self nature ('nairatmya') of dharmas and, so observing,
contemplates, it will become the cause of the achievement of
'nirvaQ.a' fruit. Nothing else spells for peace (santi).
Bodhisattva-pitaka also says: ''Those who have not heard
this dharma meaning 35 of Bodhisattva-pitaka, being ignorant
of the noble Vinaya 36 dharmas and remain content with mere
samadhi have a fall through the vanity of the ego and will not
be released from birth, old age, disease, death, grief, pain,56
suffering, ill-will and anger; they will not be released from
the six-state round (of 'samsara'), will not be freed from
dukha heaps. 37" Keeping this in view, the Lord has said: "He
who listens to the 'anukiila' 38 (beneficial) from another will
be released from old age and death." Hence, a person
desirous of generating immaculate knowledge must, after
removing all 'avall)as', meditate on 'prajiia' by staying in a
state of mental equipoise ('samatha'). Arya-ratna-kiita also
says: "Establishment in 'sila' leads to 'samadhi'; attainment of
'samadhi' will lead to 'prajiia'; unadulterated 'jiiana' bestows
the wealth of 'sila'."
It is said in Arya Mahayana-sradha-bhavana sutra:
"0 Kulaputra! I shall not speak of as to how, in the absence
'prajiia,' the bodhisattvas' mahayana faith will be born in
Mahayana. 0 Kulaputra! even with this 'paryaya' or
equivalence, whatever mahayana faith in Mahayana is born in
the bodhisattvas, it should be regarded as born of a reflection
over the true meaning of dharmas with a staid mind."
The yogi's mind will become distracted by sense objects if
insight ('vipa5yana') is not accompanied by calm ('samatha')
or equipoise; it will remain unstable like a lamp in the midst of
wind. The glow of 'jiiana' will not be very clear. So, both
(i.e. 'samatha' and vipagyna)' should be equally practised. It
has been said in Arya MahaparinirvaJ)a-siitra "The 'sravakas
are unable to see Tathagata 's 'gotra' owing to excess of
'samadhi' and paucity of 'prajiia'. The bodhisattva can see
(Tathagata's 'gotra'), but not clearly owing to excess of
'prajiia' and paucity of 'samadhi'. The Tathagata is all-seeing
owing to an equal measure of 'samatha' and 'vipasyana'."
Owing to the power of mental equipoise ('samatha') the
mind does not waver even in contrary winds like a lamp un-
affected by the wind. With insight ('vipa5yana ') it becomes
invincible for others owing to the removal of profanities of a
deviated sight. As has been said in Arya Chandra-pradeepa-
siitra: "The power of 'samatha' makes one un-wavering; the
power of 'vipa5yana' makes one mountain-like." Hence, the
union of both these has been ordained.BHAVANAKRAMA-11
In the first instance, the yogi, in order to realise 'samatha'
and 'vipasyana' should quickly and straight-forwardly
practise the collections of 'samatha' (equanimity) and
'vipasyana' (insight). Now, what is 'samatha sambhara'
(equanimity accumulation). It comprises residence in a
conducive place, desirelessness, contentment, the renounc-
ing of many an act, purification of conduct and the giving up
of the contradictory desires etc. A conducive place is that
which has five qualities: 'sulabdha' (well-got) owing to the
availability of food and clothing etc. without much difficulty;
'susthiina' (good spot) owing to the absence of evil persons
and enemies etc.; 'subhumi' (good land) owing to its being a
land without disease etc.; 'sanmitra' (friendly, owing to its
being tolerant ("~ama-dristi ') like the conduct (' sila ') of a
friend; 'suyukta' (appropriate) owing to its being not too
crowded with people during day and of little noise at night.
What is meant by desirelessness or little desire? (It means)
having little attachment or desire for one's 'cheevara' 39 to be
either fme or in access (of requirement). What is contentment?
To remain satisfied with the possession of ordinary
'cheevara' (cloth) or wrapping gown. What is meant by
giving up many actions? It is the giving up of such evil acts as
buying and selling, of too much dialogue between the
householder and the renunciate; forsaking praise and the
making of medicines and the calculation of stars etc.
What is the purification of 'sUa'? The non-discontinuation
of right instruction during both 'samvaras' (vows) whether in
'prakriti' 40 (deviation) or 'pratikSepa' 41 (contradiction); and if
it is discontinued through negligence, it has to be diverted
towards the pursuit of dharma through repentance.
Whatever has been said in 'sriivaka' vows 42 about the
(preventive) precautions 43 for a 'piiriijika' 44 is inappropriate.
Even then, repentence is imperative after which one must
resolve mentally not to repeat it but to observe or experience
'nissvabhavatii' through the very mind which inspired one to
do that act and this would lead to the purification of 'sUa' too.
This can be learnt from Arya Ajata-satru-kaukritya-vinodin.58
Therefore, after removing the faulty act ('kaukritya'), one
should practise meditation ('bhavana').
Even in (the realm oO desires, various faults accruing
from them here and hereafter (i.e. in next life) should be
mentalised and their contrarities should be given up. All
feelings of 'samsara', whether pleasant or unpleasant are
fleeting, destructible. Undoubtedly, there is bound to be
separation between them and me; so why should I be
excessively attached to them? Thinking in this manner, all
'vikalpas' must be eradicated.
What is meant by 'vipa5yana-sambhara' or accumulation
of insight? (It consists oO refuge in the good people, search
for the 'bahusruta' or the reputed scholars and mentalisation
of 'yoniSa' ('samadhi'). What kind of a good person should
be sought for refuge? One who is well-versed (well-
reputed), frank of speech, compassionate and capable of
enduring 'dukha'. Now, what is the meaning of 'search for
the 'bahusruta' (it is the search for) one who listens very
reverently to the 'neyartha' (dubious interpretation) and the
'neetartha (intelligible interpretation) of the Lord's twelve-
point45 dharma discourse. It has been said in Arya Sandhi-
nirmochana: "not to listen to the noble discourse as one may
desire is a hurdle in 'vipa5yana'." It again says: "Vipa5yana' is
born of the clear vision generated by listening and reflection."
Arya Narayana-pariprichha also says: "Prajiia dawns on him
who listens; the one with 'prajiia' has his 'klesas' calmed."
What is 'yoniSa mansikara~? For a bodhisattva who has to
decide correctly about the intelligible sutras-1 6 and the
equivocal siitra 47 meanings to become rid of all doubts is to
become single-mindedly assured in meditation (bhavana).
Otherwise, seated in the wavering vehicle of doubt, he will
not attain single-minded decisiveness anywhere like a person
in the midst of a road junction ('sringataka'). 48
The yogi should always abstain from meat and fish etc.
and take only limited, conducive food. Thus should a
bodhisattva, who has accumulated all the collections of
'samatha' and 'vipa5yana', enter meditation ('bhavana').BHAVANAKRAMA-11
Now, at the time of practising 'bhavana', the yogi should,
first of all, finish up his routine acts, be done with toilet etc.
Without a jarring tone and seated at a mentally convenient
place, thinking "I have to establish all beings in the bodhi-
adorned ('bodhi-manda) 49 state', keeping in view 'maha-
karuQ.a' which aims at the well-being of the whole world,
bowing to all the Buddhas and bodhisattvas in all the ten
directions with his five limbs, fixing in front or on some stool
the image or the picture of Lord Buddha and the bodhisattvas
in accordance with liking (or mental inclination) worshipping
and eulogising them, repenting of one's sins and commending
the world's 'punyas', sitting in 'semi-paryanka' or full
'paryanka' 50 posture of Bhattarka Vairochana 51 in an
extremely easy pose, 52 eyes neither too open nor too closed,
fixing the gaze on the tip of the nose, nor bending the body
too much nor keeping it too erect, keeping the body at ease,
turning recollectedness inwards, the bodhisattva should
make himself seated. Thereafter, he should keep both his
shoulders upright. The head, neither too upraised nor too
bent, should be fixed motionless to one side; the nose should
be straight navel-ward. The lips and the teeth should be gently
placed and the tongue should touch the roots of the upper
teeth. Inhaling and exhaling should neither Le too loud nor
thick ('sthiila') nor too vast but the breath go in and come out
slowly with automatic ease ('anabhoga').
Here, first of all, 'samatha' has to be realised. After
quietening the disturbing ·contrarities of the mind from
external objects, bringing it back constantly inwards towards
the 'alambana', the establishment of contentment-(' priti ') 53
and peace ('prasrabdhi') in the mind, these spell but 'sam-
atha'. Contemplation over the ultimate nature of things by
holding on to the prop of 'samatha' is called 'vipasyana'. As
has been said in Arya Ratna-megha: "The concentration of
mind is 'samatha' and the insight into things is 'vipasyana'."
Arya Sandhi-nirmochana also says: "Lord! how can the
realisation of 'samatha' and proficiency in 'vipasyana' be
achieved?' '0 Maitreya! it is said that there is a dharma cure or60
method established by me. It is like this: whatever siitras,
'geya' , 54 'vyakaraQ.a' 55 'gatha' 56 'undana' , 57 'nidana' , 58
'avadana' , 59 'iti-vrittaka' , 60 'jataka' , 61 'vaipulya' , 62 'adbhuta
dharma' 63 and 'upade5a-varga' 64 have been told by me to the
bodhisattvas, after carefully listening to those, owning them
up properly, practising (their) recitation, analysing them well
through the mind, piercing with insight Oit. vision), sitting in
solitude at a· lonely place, completely absorbed inwardly, one
should mentalise such dharmas as one deems proper,
because the very mind which mentalises also reflects in it that
mentalisation through constant contemplation. Thus entering
it and staying in it for many a time, whatever bodily calm
('kaya-prasrabdhi') 65 or mental calm ('chitta prasrabdhi') is
attained, that in itself is called 'samatha'. Therefore, the
bodhisattva looks for '5amatha'. It leads to bodily peace and
mental peace. After achieving them, he stays in them and,
removing the confusion of the mind, he sees during 'samatha'
the reflection of those very dharmas which have been
contemplated upon; develops faith. The reflection seen
during '5amatha' is analysed for the state of its deeper or inner
meaning ('jiieyartha'). Thorough analysis, correct concept,
obsetvation, zeal, desire (to know), noticing the fme nuances
(of analysed dharmas), understanding and absorption, all
these consitute 'vipa5yana' and are called the skills ('kausala')
of a bodhisattva's insight or 'vipa5yana'.
The yogi desirous of the accumulation of 'samatha'
should ftrst fiX his mind on the accumulation of such things as
'siitra varga' or siitra compendiums, singable siitra portions
etc. and their entire discourses ('pravachana'), inclination
toward 'tathata' ('tathata-parayaQ.a'), descending into
'tathata' ('tathata praga-bharam') and march 'tathata-ward'.
Then, he should fix his mind in the 'skandhas' of all the
different types of many dharmas together or he should fiX his
mind on that image of lord Buddha as heard of or seen by
him. As is stated in Arya Samadhiraja; "The lokanathas' Oords
of the world) are resplendent on all sides with bodies of
golden hue. He whose mind is established in this 'alambana'BHAVANAKRAMA-11
that bodhisattva is of an equanimous mind ('samahita')."
In this manner, the mind should be fixed on the very prop
('alambana') he (i.e. the yogi) wishes to and, afterwards, he
should do it increasingly. Having fixed the mind on it (i.e. the
prop), the mind should be tested in this way; 'does it properly
hold on to the 'alambana' or does it get absorbed or gets
baffled owing to disturbance ('vyaseka ') 66 from external
objects?' Thus should it be examined. If overcome by
indolence ('styana') and cowardice ('middha'), the mind
becomes absorbed or shows signs of getting absorbed, he
should at once conceptualise mentally the supremely joyous
things like the image of lord Buddha or an awareness of light
('aloka-samjful'). Then, calming down absorption ('laya') he
should act in a manner that the mind's 'alambana' should
become very clearly reflected into that 'alambana' itself.
When like one blind from birth or like a person in dark or
like one with eyes shut, one qannot see the 'alambana'
(mental prop) clearly, it should be regarded as absorbed
('leena'). When running about external forms and their
supposed qualities etc. or through other mentalisations or,
through a previously experienced thing, there arises
insolence ('audhitya') and it is feared it may perk up in the
mind also, at such times, the yogi should mentally
contemplate on the transitoriness of all 'samskaras' or on
'dukha' itself,- things which grieve the mind. Then, after
calming down all contrarities, the mind's elephant should
again be tethered to the same 'almabana '-pillar with the rope
of recollectedness ('smriti') and awareness ('sam-prajiiaya').
When absorption and insolence disappear and the mind
looks to be calmly installed in that 'alambana', then,
suspending satiety ('abhoga'), one should stay in that state
with detachment for as long as one wishes. Thus the
practitioner practising ('samatha'), achieving bodily and
mental peace, when capable of steadying his mind on the
'alambana' as he desires, should regard '5amatha' as having
been realised by him.
After realising 'samatha', one should meditate on62
'vipa8yana'. One must think like this; 'all the words of lord
Buddha are beautiful utterances ('sub~ita'), because they,
either manifestly or by tradition, express the ultimate
meaning or essence ('tattva') or lead towards it.' When the
essence of things is discovered, one will be freed from all the
meshes of view or sight (' dristi-jala ') just as darkness
disappears at the dawn of light. 'Samatha' alone will neither
purify 'jiiana' nor dispel the darkness of super-imposition
('avarar,:t.as'); 'jiiana' is purified by proper meditation
('bhavana') on the 'tattva' with 'prajna' (wisdom). The 'tattva' is
reached through 'prajiia' only. 'Prajiia' alone removes
superimposition ('avarar,:t.a') properly. Hence one should
think; 'I must search for 'tattva' with 'prajiia' after
establishing myself in '5amatha'; I should not be contented
with '5amatha' alone'.
What is the essence ('tattva') like? It is that which, in the
ultimate sense, is void of any self in all things and 'pudgala
dharmas? 67 It can be reached through the perfection of
wisdom ('prajna-paramita') and in no other manner. As has
been said in Arya Sandhi-nirmochana; "Lord! by which
perfection ('paramita') is the 'nissvabhavata' of all dharmas
attainable by the bodhisattvas? '0 Avalokitesvara! it is
attainable through 'prajiia-paramita' (the perfection of
wisdom). Therefore, staying in 'samatha', one should
meditate on 'prajna'?"
Here, the yogi should deli]?erate like this: 'pudgala', is
not seen seperate from 'skandha' (heaps), 'dhatu' (elements)
and 'ayatana'(ent:t:ances). However, 'pudgala' is not of the
nature of 'skandhas' etc., because the latter are impermanent
and of varying nature while, as some believe, 'pudgala' is
permanent and of one (unvarying) nature. In reality, for the
indescribable 'pudgala' to be a 'thing' is improper because
of the absence of any other types of 'vastu-state' (permanent
entity or an existing thing). Hence, it must be considered that
to utter 'I' and 'mine' (for any supposed thing or entity) in the
world is mere delusion.
The non-self nature of all 'dharmas' should be similarly63
meditated upon. Briefly speaking, 'dharmas' comprise the
five skandhas, 68 the twelve 'ayatanas'69 and the eighteen
'dhatus'. 70 Here, those that are with form, such as 'skandhas',
'dhatus' and 'ayatanas' are not different from the form of the
mind in the ultimate sense, because there is an absolute
absence of the certainty of self-nature ('svabhava ')when they
are divided into atoms and even when sub-atoms are
analysed. Therefore, owing to a superimposition of false
forms etc. since time immemorial the ignorant persons see
their mind alone as over-casting external forms like the
emergence of forms in a dream. 'In the ultimate sense
(' paramartha ') these forms etc. are not different from the
forms of the mind,' - this is how one should ponder over.
Thus, the seeker should regard the 'tri-dhatu' as mind alone.
So concluding the mind to be manifesting all dharmas and
analysing them, he realises the nature of all dharmas and of
the mind too. Thus, does the yogi reflect.
Even for the mind to be true in the ultimate sense is
inappropriate. Where can the truth about the mind which,
after assuming the forms of false appearances, appear in
varying forms. Just as forms are false so is the mind which is
not apart from them. Just as forms etc. being of different kinds
are neither of one nor of severnl natures, similarly the mind,
being not apart from them, is neither of one nor of several
natures. Therefore, mind is of the nature of illusion (maya)
Just as the mind is so are all dharmas too of the nature of
'maya', this should be reflected upon. When the nature of the
mind is so analysed by the seeker through 'prajna', the mind,
in the ultimate sense, is not found either inside or outside nor
in both; neither the past mind is found nor the future nor the
present mind. When generated, it comes from nowhere nor
goes anywhere on cessation, because the mind is not
graspable, is undirected and is without form. As has been said
in Arya Ratna-kiita; "0 KaSyapa! the mind is untraceable even
when reached. That which is untraceable cannot become an
'alambana'; that which can not be made a,n 'alambana' has
neither a past nor a future nor a present." Thus on
examination, one does not see the beginning, does not see
the middle, does not see the end of the mind.
just as the mind is without an end or a middle so should
one understand all dharmas to be without an end, without a
middle. Thus knowing the mind to be without end or middle,
one does not discover any self-nature of the mind as such.
That which analyses the mind appears all to be empty
('~unya'). On knowing the latter, the nature of the
appearance 71 in the mind and the nature of forms etc. will also
not be correctly seen. Thus, when the nature of all
'dharmas ' 72 is not correctly observed through 'prajfui', whether
form is transient or permanent, void or non-void, unclean or
clean, 73 created or uncreated, existent or non-existent, he (i.e.
the. seeker) does not think of such 'vikalpas' or alternatives. just
as he does not find a 'vikalpa' for form C'riipa'), so also he does
not entertain a 'vikalpa' for 'vedana,' 74 'samjiia',75
'samskara', 76 and 'vijfuina';n When the existence of dharmas
cannot be substantiated, its qualifying attributes also cannot
be proved to exist. So, how can there be a 'vikalpa'(for
something which is non-existent)? In this manner, when the
yogi does grasp the conclusion about' the ultimate nature of
things after an analysis through 'prajfui', he enters 'niiVikalpa
samadhi' and also comes to realise the non-substantiality
('nissvabhavata') of all dharmas.
He who after analysing the nature of things through
'prajii.a' does not meditate on it but only meditates on
forsaking 78 mentalization is never freed from 'vikalpas' and
will also not realise 'nissvabhavata' owing to the absence of
the glow of 'prajfui'. So the lord has said that through right
analysis and with the fire of the correct knowledge of things,
the yogi will burn the tree of the fictional mind 79 like the
churning of ftre by the 'arani'. 80
Arya Ratnamegha says; "Thus he who is skilled in washing
away faults, in order to remove all frauds for contemplating
'sunyata' (he) practises yoga. His awareness of 'sunyata'
enhanced, wherever his mind roams, in whatsoever his mindBHA V ANAKRAMA-11
busies itself, he realises on analysis all those things to be void
or empty by nature. The mind itself, when analysed, appears
empty ('sunya'). The mind which analyses also appears to be
'sunya' of any self-nature on examination. Thus examining,
he (i.e. the yogi) attains 'animitta yoga' . 81 This indicates the
entry into the 'nirnimittata ' 82 stage through the lead or
guidance of analysis.
It has been clearly indicated how it is absolutely
impossible to enter the immaculate ('nirvikalpa') state by
merely giving up mentalisation ('mansikarita ') without
reflecting on the nature of things through 'prajiia' or wisdom.
So the yogi after thoroughly and correctly examining the
nature of forms etc. through 'prajiia' and not by confining
himself in forms sits in meditation. He does not practise
'dhyana' by staying in the middle of this world and the next
owing to the non-availability of those forms etc. Hence, this is
called 'unfixed meditation'. 8 ~ When he enters 'anupalambha
dhyana, ' 114 after analysing all things through 'prajiia' it is
called 'praj~ottara dhyana' or post-wisdom meditation as has
been indicated in Arya Gaganaganja and Ratna-chiiQa.
He having realised the reality of the non-self nature of
beings ('pudgala-dharma nairatmya'), being beyond the need
for the observation or analysis of any other thing owing to its
non-existence, devoid of the din of argument and counter-
argument, of his own volition and with natural ease should
meditate on the reality ('tattva') clearly and stay in it. Staying
there, he should not disturb mental emanations ('chitta
santana'). In between, if the mind is disturbed from the
outside by attachment ('raga') etc., knowing it to be a
deviation and quickly quietening down the mind from
reflection over the harmful (deviation) he should once again
make the mind enter 'tathata'. If he finds the mind un-
interested therein, he should reflect over the benefits of
'samadhi' and mentalise interest in it. Disinterestedness in
seeing the faults of (his) deviation ('viksepa') should also be
calmed down. If there is an apprehension of the mind
relapsing into absorption ('laya') owing to a dim instigation 11'66
from indolence and cowardice, it must be quickly calmed
down by mentalising an extremely joyous object as mentioned
earlier and the same 'tattva' should be firmly held as a
support. If on a recollection of some previous light-
heartedness the mind tends to become flippant, one must
mentalise, as already stated, the fleeting aspect of painful
things and calm down the mind. After that the mind should
again be attuned to the same 'tattva' through an approach 86 of
natural ease or felicity.
When detached from 'laya' and 'audhatya', the mind gets
clearly attuned to that essence ('tattva') of its own volition,
the 'sadhaka' or seeker should practise detachment
('upeksa') by de-activising effort ('bhoga'); 87 if 'abhoga' 88
(multiplicity) is indulged in when the mind is properly
attuned ('sampravritta'), it will become confounded. On the
mind being even absorbed, if 'abhoga' is not practised, it
remains bereft of 'vipasyana' owing to excessive stupor or
absorption. Therefore, when the mind is in a state of 'laya' effort
must be done (to stir it out of its state) but 'bhoga' should not be
done in the attuned state. When 'vipa5yana' is contemplated
upon, prajna becomes heightened; then, owing to the paucity
of 'samatha', the reality is not clearly seen due to the wavering
of the mind like a lamp in the wind. So 'samatha '(calm) must be
meditated upon at that time. When 'samatha' gets excessive,
'prajiia' (wisdom) should be meditated upon.
When bo~h (i.e. calm and insight) attain a balance, one
should stay in that state through 'anabhisamskara' or an
attitude of effortless repose as long as the body and the mind
do not feel an ache. During the interval of this body-mind
ache, look at the whole world as 'maya' (illusion), a 'marich'
(mirage), a dream-snare, a mere moon-in-water reflection
and then reflect like this: 'these 'dharmas' have become
complicated in the world as there is no knowledge of true or
serious ('gambhira') dharma; hence, I shall so act as to make
(the beings) aware of true 'dharmata' or the reality of things'.
So reflecting, one should place 'maha-karul)a' and
'bodhicitta' in front. Then, after a little respite, he shouldBHAVANAKRAMA-11
again enter 'the state of meditation wherein all dharmas are
unfelt ('sarva-dharam-nin1bhasa samadhi'). He should again
relax when the mind becomes over-wrought. This is the duo-
leading (' yuganaddha-vahi ') path of 'samatha' and
'vipasyana', which depends on the prop of 'savikalpa' and
'nirvikalpa' reflections, that is, admixed and immaculate
In this manner, the yogi should continue to remain seated,
meditating on 'tattva' for an hour, a half 'prahara', a"' full
'prahara' 89 or for as long a period as he may desire. The
'artha-pravichaya dhyana' or the meditation which leads to
sifting the true meaning of the things has been indicated in
the Arya Lankavatara. After this, rising up from 'samadhi' but
without undoing the lotus pose, he (i.e. the yogi) should
reflect 'all these dharmas, although non-existing in the
ultimate sense, are stationed in apparent phenomena
('samvriti'); otherwise, how could the fruit of action ('karma-
phala ') relationship be established? 'The lord too had said;
'things are created in 'samvriti' but they are non-existent in
'paramartha' (ultimate sense).'
One must ponder iike this; 'ignorant people super-impose
existence over non-existent things. In this manner their
intellect gets baffled and for long do they wander in the
rounds of 'samsara'. Therefore, after completing supreme
'punyas' and 'jfi.ana' accumulations and attaining the
'sarvajiiata' state, I shall educate those people about the truth
of the things (' dharmata ').' After this, the yogi should slowly
undo his lotus.posture and make obeisance to all the Buddhas
and bodhisattvas in the ten directions and, after worshipping
and eulogising them, he should undertake the great vow
('maha-prat:tidhana') of 'arya-bhadracharya'. 90 After that an
effort should be made to accumulate all endless 'punyas' and
'jfi.ana' collection replete with. emptiness (' sunyata ') and
supreme compassion ('mahakarut:ta').
Such 'dhyana' is free from all kinds of superimpositions.
As has been stated in Arya Ratna-chu<;ia; "wearing the armour
of love ('maitri') seated on the throne of great compassion68
('mahakarur:ta'), he pracitses the 'dhyana' of the accumulation
('abhinirhara') of the emptiness of all superimpositions
('sarvakara-varopeta 'sunyata'); what is that 'emptiness of all
superimpositions? (It is that) detailed as non-deviation
('ana pagati ') 91 from 'dana', non-deviation from sila, non-
deviation from 'ksanti', non-deviation from 'veerya', non-
deviation from 'dhyana', non-deviation from 'prajiia', non-
deviation from Upaya' etc." Thus in detail. The bodhisattva
should work for the maturation of sattvas' (punya) or sattva-
paripaka'92 and must practise such 'kusalas' (beneficient ·
means) like 'dana' (giving) etc. which generate such wealth
as field (ksetra), body (kaya) and proliferation (bahu-
In the absence of the above, whose would be the fruit of
that wealth called Buddha ksetras' (field)? So sarva-
karavaropeta' is that knowledge or that 'sarvajiiata', which,
being full of such efforts as 'dana' etc. has been defined by the
lord as the one 'with the proficiency of efforts attained'.
Therefore, not Sunyata' alone but the methods (upayaya) of
dana' etc. should also be practised by the boddhisattva. Arya
Sarva-dharma Vaipulya says; "0 maitreya! this method
advocates the coming together of Six Perfections for the
boddhisattvas' enlightenment. The ignorant people may
comment that the boddhisattva may be educated in 'prajiia-
paramita' alone and that there is no need of other perfections
(for him). Well, such people tarnish other paramitas' (per-
fections) too. So, what do you think, 0 Ajita! Was Kasiraja 93 a
fool to ~;ve away his own flesh in lieu of that of the pigeon?
"Nv Lord!" replied Maitreya. The lord continued, "0 Maitreya!
whatever kusala mulas' 94 or root merits com-prising the Six
Perfections were accumulated by me while practising the
conduct of a bodhisattva, did they prove harmful for me?"
"No, Lord!" replied Maitreya. The lord said, "you also properly
practised dana-parmita' for sixty aeons (kalpas), 'sila-
parmita' for sixty aeons, k5anti-parmita' for sixty aeons,
'veerya-parmita' for sixty aeons and lprajiia-parmita' for sixty
aeons. Even then the ignorant people will say that a single
path ('naya') like 'sunyat:a' can lead to 'bodhi'. Such people
will become ~impure of conduct."
The bodhisattva, with wisdom alone and without efforts
and means, cannot execute Lord Buddha's work like a 'sra-
vaka' cannot (execute). With the help of means ('upayaya')
only will he be able to do so. As has been said in Arya Ratn-
akuta; "0 Kasyapa! just as kings execute their job with the
assistance of a minister, so also the bodhisattvas' 'praji'i.a',
coupled with the skill of 'upayaya', executes all Buddha
works." The direction of the bodhisattvas' path is different;
that of the 'tirthikas' 95 and of 'sravakas' is different. The
direction of the 'tirthikas' path, owing to its contradictions of
self ('atma') etc. is totally shorn of 'praji'i.a' (wisdom); so there
will be no attainment of release ('mokSa') for them.
The 'sravaka' stage being devoid of 'mahakaruQa' does
not consist of 'upayaya'; so they tend to devote themselves to
(the persuit oO solitary nirvaQa. The bodhisattva path is
regarded as comprising 'prajfi.a.' and 'upayaya'. So they
become inclined towards un-installed or un-calculated
nirvaQa. The bodhisattva path being that of 'praji'i.a' and
'upayaya' they attain un-fixed or un-installed (aprati~thita)
nirvaQa. He does not fall into the 'samsara' because of the
force of 'praji'i.a' and does not fall into (the 'sravaka's
calculated) nirvaQa due to the force of 'upayaya' .
.Arya Marga-si~ says, "these two, in brief, are the paths
of bodhisattvas. What two? 'prajna' and 'upayaya!" Arya Sri-
paramadya also says, 'Praji'i.a-Paramita', is the mother and
skilful means (upayaya), the father." Also (said) in Arya
Vimalakirti-nirde5a-siitra; ''What fetters a bodhisattva, what his
release? Holding on to the round of 'samsara' without 'upayaya'
is the bodhisattva's fetters, the crossing of the samsaric round
with 'upayaya' is his release. Holding on to the round of
'samsara' without 'praji'i.a' is his fetters; crossing the round
with 'prajna' is his release 'Prajna' (wisdom) not attached to
'upayaya', (means) is fetters; 'praji'i.a' attached to 'upayaya'
is release. 'Upayaya' unheld by 'praji'i.a' is fetters; 'Upayaya'
held on to by 'praji'i.a' is release". Thus (said) in detail.70
If the bodhisattva practises 'prajiia' (wisdom) alone, he
will fall into the 'sravaka 's' desired 'nirvar,a' and so into ties
('bandhana'); 'aprati~thita nirvar,a' will not give release.
Thus 'prajiia' without 'upayaya' becomes a bondage for a
bodhisattva. Therefore, like people plagued by wind
(humour) using heat, or fire, the bodhisattva should practise
emptiness through 'prajiia' coupled with 'upayaya' in order to
counter the wind of contradiction ('viparyasa'); he should not
get to it (i.e. 'sravaka's nirvar,a in actuality or manifestly
('saksata') like a 'sravaka'). As is stated in Arya Da5a-dharma-
siitra; "0 Kulputra! just as a person serves fire and reveres it,
treats it (respectfully) like his own preceptor but still thinks
that that fire, so worshipped, respected and revered by him,
cannot be held by him in both his hands. Why? Because he
knows that by so doing he will get physical pain and mental
worry. Similary, the bodhisattva does not manifestly take to
'nirvar,a' although aspiring after it. Why so? Because he
believes that by accepting 'nirvar,a' he would retreat from
By practising 'upayaya' alone the bodhisattva, having not
crossed a common man's stage, will remain totally bound.
Hence, 'upayaya' should be practised along with 'prajiia'.
Like poison overcome by mantra-efficacy, the 'klesas' of a
bodhisattva too turn into nector by meditation through the
power of the adoption of 'prajfi.a'. What, then, to speak of
'dana' etc., which by their very nature, bear beneficient fruit.
It is said in Arya Ratnakiita; "0 Kasyapa, just as poison
accompanied by 'mantra' and medicine does not kill so also
the bodhisattvas owned by 'prajiia' do not have a downfall
through their 'klesas'."
The reason due to which the bodhisattva does not give up
the world is the power of his 'upayaya'; because of that (very
reason) itself he does not fall into the 'sravaka 's nirvar,a. The
reason due to which he removes all props ('alambana') is the
power of 'prajiia'; because of that very reason itself, he does
not fall into 'samsara'. So he attains the Buddhahood of un-
established nirvar,a. It has been said in Arya-gagana-ganja;BRA V ANAKRAMA-11
"All 'klesas' are stopped by that 'prajiia jnaiia' and all sattvas
are not forsaken owing to 'upayaya Jiiana'?" Arya Sandhi-
nirmochana also states; "I have not spoken of supreme or
transcendental enlighten-ment ('anuttara samyaka-
sambodhi ') for those who totally remove themselves away
from the sattvas' service or well-being, nor for those who
totally turn away from the refinement ('abhisamskara') of
their 'samskaras'. Hence, he who is aspiring after
Buddhahood should practise both 'upayaya' and 'prajiia'."
At the time of meditating on transcendental wisdom or at
the time of the extremely exalted state ('samahita'), when it
is not possible to practise 'upayaya' like 'dana' etc., what-
ever 'prajiia' is there as part of the experiment (' prayoga ') 96
and partial attainment ('p~talabdha'), 97 that itself constitutes
the practice of 'upayaya'. Hence both wisdom and means
occur simultaneously and that, in fact is the single duo-path of
'prajiia' and 'upayaya' of the bodhisattvas. Owing to their
being equipped with 'maha-karuQ.a', which looks over all the
sentient beings, they pursue or practise the transcendental
path and, at the time of ameliorative effort or means
(utthanopayaya) also, like a magicican, practise uninte-
rrupted 'dana' etc. As has been said in Arya Aksyamati-
nirdesa; "And, what is the bodhisattva's 'upayaya'? What is
accumulation of prajiia? It is that exalted absorption by which
the mind gets fixed on the 'alambana' (support) of
'mahakaruQ.a'(great compassion) by looking at 'sattvas'; it is
'upayaya'. That which gives the exalted absorption of peace
and supreme peace is his (i.e. the bodhisattva's) wisdom or
'prajiia'?" Maradamana-parichheda also says; "Moreover, the
elevating practice of the bodhisattvas is linked with the
knowledge of 'prajiia'; with the knowledge of 'upayaya' it
unites itself with the accumulation of beneficient dharmas.
With wisdom knowledge it engages itself in 'nairatmya'
(non-soul) 'asattva' (non-being), 'ajiva'(non-selO, 'apo~a' 98
(non-permanence), 'a-pudgala' 99 (non-existence of 'pudgala').
With 'upayaya' jiiana, he is to be engaged in the proper
maturation (' paripaka ') of all sentinent beings." Arya72
Dharma-samgiti-siitra also says; "just as a magician, ready to
undo (the magical object oO his creation, has no attachment
towards it as he is aware of its reality, so also the bodhi-
sattvas wear an armour for the world, considering all the
three states of existence to be illusory and thus become
proficient in 'sambodhi' (enlightenment)". It is said that the
way of the bodhisattvas comprising 'prajna' and 'upayaya'
can be employed even when staying in the midst of the
world by keeping the goal in view; it can also be used while
staying in desired or fixed nirvar:ta ('asaya-nirvar:ta'). 100
After practising such 'upayayas' (means) as giving
('dana') etc. which have transformed themselves into
supreme 'sambodhi' comprising 'sunyata' and 'rnahakaruQa',
(the bodhisattva) should, regularly meditate on 'samatha'
(calm) and 'vispasyana (insight) as much as possible for the
sake of generating 'paramartha bodhicitta'. Arya gochar-
parisuddhi-sutra says; "skill in means should always be
meditated upon through current recollectedness as instructed
in the same manner as the constant eulogisation of bodhi-
sattvas who are ever engaged in the good of sentient beings."
He who meditates on 'karut;l3.', 'upayaya' and 'bodhicitta'-
compassion, means and bodhi-mind in the above manner
certainly becomes distinguished in this life. He will have the
'dar5ana' (sight) of Buddha and the bodhisattvas in dream; he
will also have other good dreams. Gods will protect him
through (their) commendation. Every moment will spell for
massive accumulation of merit and knowledge. Stains of
defilements will be destroyed; joy and amiability will always
increase. He will become the darling of the many. The body
also will not contract any ailment. The alacrity of the supreme
mind will be attained and special qualities like detachment or
unconcern ('abhijiiata') will accrue.
After this the yogi, by the power of 'riddhi' 101 (special
attainments), goes to various 'loka-dhatus' (world) and
worships the Buddhas; he also hears dharma from them.
He will surely have the holy sight of the Buddhas and the
bodhisattvas at the time of his death. In the next birth also, heBHAVANAKRAMA-U
will be born in a distinguished place and family, haloed by
Buddhas and boddhisattvas. In this manner he will, without
much ado, complete his merit ('punya') and 'jiiana'
collections. He will become the great enjoyer (of bliss) and
have a large family (of spiritual aspirants). He will also help
many persons with his incisive insight. He will remember all
his births in every birth. One must also learn about similarly
laudable and high praise (for this path) mentioned in other
In this manner, meditating on 'karuQ.a', 'upayaya' and
'bodhicitta' reverently, for long, 'paramartha bodhichitta',
accumulated through 'dar5ana marga' is born through the
generation of the extremely pure moment in the tendencies of
the mind and their consequent maturation as also meditation
on the essence of things up to its last limit like the churning
fire with 'yajiia' fuel, the decline of contrarities due to
supreme knowledge, an absolutely transparent dawning of
'dharma-dhatu' devoid of 'prapaneh' (falsehood), absolute
staidness like the unflickering lamp in a neat, quiet and
windless state or place, and full realisation of the 'tattva' with
its non-self nature. When such 'bodhichitta' is born, one
enters the 'alambana' upto the totality of things. He is born
into Tathagata's 'gotra' (class) and becomes inclined towards
unblemi~hed conduct and indifferent towards all worldly
tendencies, is established in a state of the awareness of
'dharma-dhatu' and 'dharma-dhatu' of the bodhisattvas and
attains the first stage ('bhumi'). This kind of praise of
'bodhichitta' can be learnt in detail from da5a-bhumiSvara 102
etc. This 'dhyana' which provides the 'almbana' of 'tathata' is
indicated in Arya lankavatara. This leads to the unsullied state
of the bodhisattva's immaculate 'samadhi'.
The inclination towards 'adhimukti bhumi' is possible
through 'adhimukti' (faith or 'sraddha') and not through
(mental} refmement ('abhisamskara'). When that knowledge
dawns, he directly enters (the 'bhumi'). After entering the ftrst
'bhumi' (stage) in this manner, he attains the 'alambana' of
'proficiency in performance' (karya-~patti) 1 Q~ in the path of74
meditation (bhavana) through the contemplation of 'prajna'
and 'upayaya' with the help of transcendental ('lokottara')
and later accumulated ('p~talabdha')1 04 'jnana' by purifying
one after the other, the lower 'bhumis' in order to achieve
better and better attributes ('guJ:ias') with the cleansingu 15 of
accumulated dross (of 'avaraiia') which (only) 'bhavana' can
destroy; the yogi thus enters the bounds of 'Tathagata's'
boundless jiiana and the ocean of 'sarvajiiata. This sequence
of purification of the tendencies of the mind has been
mentioned in Arya Avalokitesvara. This leads to the purely
immaculate state of the bodhisattva. As has been said in Arya
Sandhi-nirmochana also; "(The bodhisattva) will become
enlightened with the. boundless transcendental knowledge."
Owing to his having entered the ocean of 'sarvajiiata' he,
like the wish-fulfilling gem, possesses sustenance factors or
'guJ:la' heaps for all the sattvas as sanctified by the fruits of
earlier vows, having attained the habit of supreme
compassion, equipped with many 'upayayas' through 'ana-
bhoga' (non-concernment), the fulfiller of all the purpose of
the entire world through endless ways, having attaiped the
ultimate limit of the highest attributes, wanderer in the
boundless world of 'sattvas' after eliminating the dirt of all
the faults of lust; so seeing the seer, after generating faith in
lord Buddha, the treasure of all 'guJ:las' (excellent attributes),
should himself make all efforts to achieve the perfect
fulfillment of those qualities. So the lord has said, "This
'sarvajiia jiiana' (the knowledge of the ultimate reality of
things) has compassion as its root, 'bodhichitta as its cause
and 'upayaya' as its fulfullment or consummation". With their
stains of jealousy etc. removed, the noble persons remain
unsatiated with (the accumulation oO attributes or qualities
like oceans with water. They accept beneficial words after
examining them just as the swans royal gladly separate milk
Hence wise persons should put aside the mind baffied by
prejudices and accept good words even from the ignorant.(20)
The merit that I have earned by thus speaking of theBHAVANAKRAMA-11
Madhaymika way, may it help all people to attain the
The middle part of Bhavanakrama written by Acharya
This version has been settled after the translation done by
the Indian Pandita Prajnavannana and Lotswa (the translator)
End of Bbiwanakrama-nBRA V ANAI<RAMA- m
'Bhavanakrama' or 'the sequence of meditation' is being
described here in brief for those who have entered the path in
accordance with the way of Mahayana sutras. Therein,
although the lord has taught about the different 'samadhis' of
the buddhisattvas as 'aparimita' 1 and 'aprrum,r,a•z even then
'samatha' and 'vipa5yana' include all samadhis. That is why it
is called the duo-path of equipoise and insight. The lord has
said, "By meditating on 'samatha' and 'vipa5yana' a person
gets released from the bondage of wickedness 3 and of
nimitta. 4 " Therefore, those desirous of removing all super-
impositions ('avaq1as') should practise 'samatha' and
'vipa5yana'. The mind becomes motionless like a lamp in a
windless place, through the force of 'samatha'. Through
'vipa5yana' is generated the glow of the true knowledge due
to the revelation of the real nature of 'dharma tattva'. Then
the entire 'avarat)a' is removed like the (disappearance oO
darkness with the light of dawn.
The lord, therefore, has ordained four things for the
yogis: 'alambana'; 'nirvikalpa pratibimbakama' 5 (directly
perceived reflection) 'savikalpa pratibimbakama' 6 (mentally
acquired reflection), 'vastu-paryantata' 7 (the ultimate limit of
things) and 'karya parini~;;patti' 8 (fulfilmelit of work).
Whatever 'aJambana' is practised through the reflection of all
dharmas and the devotion or faith ('adhimukti') in Buddha
images etc. along with 'samatha' is called 'nirvikalpa
pratibimba'. It is 'nirvikalpa' or immaculate because it
analyses the true meaning of all phenomena in an absolute
('avikalpa') 9 manner. It is a reflection ('pratibimba') because
it comprises meditating on the reflection of all see-able and
acceptable 'dharmas' as 'alambana'. When the yogi, in order
to understand the meaning of 'tattva' deliberates on that very
reflection through 'vipasyana', it is called 'savikalpa
pratibimaba' owing to the generation of analytical option
('tattva-nirupaQa vikalpa ')1° indicating 'vipaSyani'. Analysing
the nature of that very reflection, the yogi learns the nature of78
all 'dharmas' like one surely coming to know of all the
deformities of his face by seeing the reflection in a mirror.
When he realises the such-ness (tathat:a) of the quality of the
end of all things then, owing to the attainment of all total
limits of things ('vastu-paryantatava '), 11 it is called 'vastu
paryanta 12 alambana, in the ftrst 'bhumi,. After that, like using
the elixir 13 of a medicine, through the mode of meditation
(bhavana), due to the generation of a genuine interest in
other bhumis respectively and with the attainment of 'asraya
pravritti', 14 when the yogi achieves the 'karya samapatti' 15 of
the total removal of all superimpositions, that very 'jnana' is
termed as 'karya n~patti alambana' or 'the prop of all fulfil-
ment of action' in 'Buddha-bhumi' (the stage ofboddhisattva-
Now what does all this prove? (it shows that) the limit or
end of all things is realised through meditation on 'samatha'
and 'vipasyana', which leads to the all-avaraQ.a-removing
absorption in the objective, that is, the achieving of 'bodhi'.
Therefore, he who aspires to attain 'buddhatva' should
practise 'samatha' and 'vipa5yana'. He who does not practise
these two attains neither 'vastu-paryantata' nor ·~arya
n~patti'; 'samatha' here is the concentration of .the mind and
'vipasyana' the examination of phenomena ('bhutas').
The lord has breifly spoken of the qualities of 'samatha'
and 'vipasyana' in Arya Ratna-megha etc. Here, the yogi,
through staying in the accumulation of 'samatha' and
'vipasyana' by purifying 'sila' etc. and by generating great
compassion for all sentient beings, should practise hearing 16
dharma, reflecting 17 over it and meditating by means of the
At the time of 'bhavana' (meditation) the yogi should first
of all complete his routine duties like toilet etc., sit at a
convivial place where no jarring noise disturbs and,
undertaking the vows: 'all beings have to be established in
the glory of 'bodhi' by me', keeping in view 'mahakaruQ.a'
which aims at the well-being of the entire world, bowing
with his ftve limbs to all Buddhas and bodhisattvas in the tenBHA VANAKRAMA-III
directions, installing the (image and pictures oO Buddhas and
bodhisatttvas on a stool or elsewhere, worshipping, praising
them as he may wish, confessing his own sins and
commending the virtues of the whole world, seating himself
on a gentle seat in the 'paryanka' posture of Bhattaraka
Vairochana, or. in the half 'paryanka' posture with eyes
neither too shut nor too open and gaze fixed on the tip of the
nose, the body erect but at ease and neither too stooping nor
too stiff, should make his 'smriti' 18 or recollectedness inward-
looking. Then the shoulders should remain level, the head
neither raised nor bent but staying steady on one side. The
nose should be in line with the navel and the tongue. should
touch the root of the upper 'teeth. Incoming and outgoing
breath should neither be loud nor gruffy nor fast but
automatic and natural with measured inhalation and
The yogi should first of all practise 'samatha' by
concentrating his mind on that image of Tathagata which he
has seen or heard of. Then, decorated with such special
marks as shine like heated or burnt gold, sitting in the midst of
the Buddha family (parsana-maQ.<;lala) 19 and ministering in
myriads of ways to the welfare of beings, by constantly
mentalising such an image of Tathagata, the yogi should
generate an aspiration for (the cultivation oO Tathagata's
(guQ.as) (qualities or attributes). After calming down
absorption, insolence etc. he should continue meditating till
he sees (during 'dhyana') Tathagata as vividly as the image in
front of him. Then, he should contemplate on 'vipa5yana' by
observing the reflection of Tathagata's image as it appears,
disappears and appears (again and again). After that he
should deliberate like this; 'just as the reflection of Tathagata 's
image neither appeared from anywhere nor will disappear
anywhere and the seated image is also without any self -entity
('svabhava') and devoid of 'self' and 1-ness, similarly all
'dharmas' are devoid of (true) existence, (devoid of self and
devoid of 1-ness); they neither come (from anywhere) nor go
(anywhere) and are without an entity like the reflection'. So80
deliberating and meditating on the tattva (reality) with an
immaculate and an indescribably composed mind, he should
continue to be seated as long as he wishes. This 'samadhi'
has been indicated or designated as Ready-Buddha-Seated-
in-front 'samadhi'. Its detailed 'anuSa.msa' (commendation)
should be studied in the sutra of that name.
In such ways comes about 'dharma' acquisitions (dharma
samgraha). By fixing the mind on these, one must practise
'Sama.tha' for the calming down of absotption (of attachment)
and insolence. In fact, all dharma acquisitions are vis-a-vis
'riipa-ariipi-bheda' 20 (the distinction between the form and
the formless). Those acquired from 'riipa-skandha' 21 are
called 'riipi' (with form); those acquired from 'skandhas'
(heaps) of 'vedana' (feeling) 22 etc. are called 'ariipa'
(without form). The ignorant people owing to their fixation in
the acquisition of 'bhava' (worldly things) etc .. wander in the
'samsara' with their intellects deluded. The 'yogi', in order to
remove their delusion and by directing his 'mahakaruQ.a'
towards them should meditate on 'vipasyana' (after
perfecting 'samatha'), in order to realise the 'tattva'. The
examination of 'bhutas', (things or phenomena) is called
'vispa5yana' and 'bhuta' in tum, is 'pudgala' and 'dharma-
nairatmya' (non-self, non-existent).
Now 'pudgala nairatmaya', is the non-self and non-I-ness
of 'skandhas' and 'dharma-nairatyma' is the delusion thereof.
The yogi must examine this. There is no 'pudgala' separate
from 'riipa' or form etc. owing to its non-reflection
(apratibhasa) 23 and the factors like 'I am' are born from form
(riipa) etc. only; nor is 'pudgala' of the nature of 'riipa-
skandhas' (form-heaps) etc. because form etc. are transitory
and various by nature and 'pudgala' has been imagined by
some as permanent and of one form. It is not appropriate for
'pudgala' to be thing ('vastu') owing to its being indefinable
from the point of view of 'tattva' and its separate-ness
('anyatva') and (also) because reality ('vastu-sata') 24 has no
other form. Therefore, for people to speak of 'I' or 'mine' is
merely a foolish delusion. Then, he should, in order to attainBHAVANAKRAMA-lll
'dharma nairatmya', consider whether these 'form dharmas'
are permanent entities seperate from the mind or that it is the
mind itself which is reflected in form ('riipa') etc. like forms
in a dream. Examining them in their atoms or sub-atomic
parts, he will discover nothing. Thus, not finding anything, he
becomes bereft of the contradictions of being and non-being,
is-ness and is-not-ness.
The mind manifests the three 'dhatus' too, as is said in
Lankavatara; "Matter can be divided into atoms but 'riipa'
(form) should not create contradictions in form. Those with
damaged sight cannot understand the play of the mind".
The yogi reflects like this: "It is the mind alone which,
since time immemorial, appears externally as differe-nt forms
etc. to the- ignorant owing to its wrong ftxation on false forms
etc., like appearances in a dream. Therefore, concluding the
mind to be the manifestation of all dharmas and analysing
them, he comes to understand the nature of all· phenomena
and examines the mind. He deliberates like this; "The mind is
also uncreated, like an illusion, in the ultimate sense. When
the mind itself appears in various forms after assuming
illusocy shapes of 'riipa' etc., how can then its own existence
be established, owing to its not being different from (those)
forms etc. The mind, when being created, comes from
nowhere· and goes nowhere during cessation. It is uncreated
by itself, by others or by either of these in the ultimate ~ense.
Hence, the mind is like an illusion (maya). Just as the rrund is,
so are all 'dharmas' illusory, uncreated in the ultimate
The nature of mind by which the yogi examines
(phenomena) is also not traceable on examination. So to
whatever 'alambana' th~ yogi's mind travels, its nature or
substantial is-ness is not traced on examination. When that is
not found, understand all things to be without a real basis like
the mass of a plantain stem. The mind, then recedes. In this
manner, having become shorn of the contradictions of
'bhava' 25 etc. and the old illusion 26 gone, he attains 'nimimitta
yoga'. 27 Thus Arya Ratnamegha says, " In this way he (i.e. theH2
yogi), proficient in washing the dirt of (all) faults, attains yoga
through meditation on 'sunyata' for the removal of all
'prapancha' or illusory falsities."
His 'sunyata' meditation thus augmented, to where-
soever his mind travels or to whatsoever he engages it, he
realises the emptiness of those places (and things) after
searching analysis. The mind itself, on examination, appears
empty by nature. Thus, through close examination, he enters
'nirnimitta yoga'. He also comes to know that he who does
not examine (things) closely, cannot enter into the 'nirnimitta
Examining the nature of 'dharmas' in this manner, when
he does not find anything, he neither postulates 'there is' nor
'there is not'. He who regards it as 'not there'; receives no
reflection in his 'buddhi' (intellect). If 'bhava' is noticed
sometimes, he should imagine its presence as 'not there'. If
the yogi, examining with his wisdom, does not discover any
'bhavas' during the three 'kala's (times) (i.e the past, the
present, the future), what postulates shall he imagine as being
'there is not'? So, in that situation, he has no other alternatives
owing to the preponderance of 'bhava' (is-ness) and 'abhava'
(is-not-ness) over all alternatives ('vikalpas'). When there is no
'pervading thing' (vyapaka), 28 there cannot be any 'pervaded
object (vyapya). 29 So the yogi enters the unaldulterated
imma-culate stage, and he does not rely on form etc. either.
Because of his not finding any substantial existence of things
on examination with 'prajna' he becomes a 'beyond wisdom'
('prajiiottara') practitioner. Having thus entered the essence
or secret ('tattva') of the non-self of 'pudgala dharma', due to
the absence of anything else worth examining and his mind in
its own volition in consequence of such thinking amid the
prevailing immaculate-ness ('nirvikalpa rasa'), the yogi
should remain seated by holding on to that 'tattva' clearly
with no mental exercise. Staying in that state, he should not
allow any aberrations of the mind.
If the mind, during the period, gets diverted towards
externals, he should examine its nature to calm down theBHAVANAKRAMA-111
mind and then re-engage it in meditational practice. In case
the mind does not appear engaged, he should observe the
characteristics of 'samadhi' and contemplate engagement
therein. When (the mind is) disturbed, he should observe the
(characteristic) faults and overcome disinterestedness. If, with
the coming on of lethargy (' styana ') and indolence
('middha'), the mind appears to be apparently absorbed or
about to relapse into absorption, he should overcome that
'laya' (absorption inertia) by mentalising such joyous things
as the form of lord Buddha and consciousness of light etc.
Then hold on firmly onto that 'tattva': if the yogi is unable to
hold on to 'tattva' in a clear manner as would not one who is
blind from birth or has entered darkness or has closed his
eyes, his mind should be regarded as 'leena' (absorbed in
inertia) and as devoid of insight ('vipa5yana'). If he finds the
mind uppish in between owing to a (revived) desire for
previously experienced objects or there is an apprehension of
uppishness ('audhatya '), he should mentally ponder over the
painfully fleeting (nature of) things and calm down (that)
uppishness. After that, he should again make an effort to
effortlessly engage the mind in that very 'tattva'. When, like a
battled person or like a monkey, the mind gets distracted, it
should be taken as an indication of uppishness and the
absence of equipoise or calm ('samatha'). When retrieved
from such obsorption or 'inertia' ('laya') and uppishness, the
mind, engaged again of its own volition, re-yoked to that very
'tattva', the yogi should de-activate enjoyment (abhoga) and
practise detachment ('upkesa'). Then alone should the single-
duo path of 'samatha' and 'vipasyanii' be considered as
When meditating on 'vipasyaQ.ii' (insight) 'prajiia'
becomes excessive owing to the paucity of 'samatha', the
'tattva' will not be very clearly visible due to the restlessness
of the mind like a lamp in the wind. 'samatha' should be
meditated upon at that time. On 'samatha' growing excerssive,
'tattva' will not be very clearly visible to one" overwhelmed
by indolence. 'Prajiia' should be meditated upon at that time.84
When both are equally engaged like two oxen (yoked) to a
single yoke, the yogi stays in 'anabhisamskara' till the body
and the mind ache.
Briefly speaking, all 'samadhis' sufffer from six faults;
laziness, 30 alambana - forsaking, 31 inert absorption, 3 2
uppishness, 33 non-effort, 34 and effort.3 5
As opposed to them, one should contemplate the eight
dispelling-samskaras' 36 which are (mental) faith,3 7 desire3 8
(to act), effort, 39 alacrity or activeness, 40 recollectedness, 41
awareness, 42 consciousness 45 and detachment. Of these the
first four are the opposition of laziness, because with faith in
efficacious qualities, the yogi's craving (for meditation) is
born. Craving leads to effort ('veerya ') and when effort starts,
the body and the mind become active. With this activeness of
the body and the mind laziness, (kausidya) is removed.
Therefore, 'sraddha' etc. are meant for the removal of
laziness, they must be contemplated upon. The prop of
recollectedness (' smriti ') is the opposite of forsaking or
abandoning ('sampramo~a'). Awareness ('samprajftaya') is
the opposite of inert absorption ('laya') and uppishness
('audhatya'), because they are stopped when noted by it
(i.e. 'samprajiiaya'). If 'laya' and 'audhatya' are not calmed
down, 'anabhoga' will accur. As opposite to it (i.e. anabhoga
or disaffection), 'chetana' or consciousness should be
meditated upon. When the mind becomes calm after the
removal of inertia and uppishness, the fault of satiety
('abhoga') occurs. As opposed to it, detachment ('upek5a')
should be meditated upon.
If 'abhoga' occurs when the mind is evenly engaged, it
(i.e. the mind) gets confused. If 'abhoga' is not felt when the
mind is in 'laya' (inertia), the mind being without 'vispa5yana'
(insight), it will become totally inert ('leena') like a blind
person. Therefore, such mind should be controlled, its
uppishness curbed and detachment ('upeksa') again be
practised in that equanimous state.
After this, the yogi should remain seated in the
contemplation of 'tattva' through 'anabhisamskara' (the lastBHA V ANAKRAMA-111
of the four releases) for as long as he wishes. In between,
when the body and the mind ache, the yogi should again. and
again think of the world to be an illusion, a dream, a reflection
of the moon (in water). As has been said in Avikalpa-ptavesa.
"(He) sees all dharmas like the surface of the sky through his
transcendental knowledge; with this background, he regards
them as 'maya', a mirage, a dream, a refleetion of the moon in
water." Thus realising the world to be an illusion and directing
his great compassion towards beings, he should think like
this: "these ignorant people, unaware of the reality of
'dharmas' superimpose existence on basically non-existing
dharmas and becoming baffled, gather many, many 'karmas'
and 'klesas'. Thus they continue to wander in the cyclic
round. I will, therefore, so work that I could make these
people aware of true 'dharmas'?" After a little rest, the yogi
should again engage himself in 'sarva-dharma-nirabhasa
samadhi' (the samadhi in which no 'dharmas' exist). In this
manner and in this sequence should he (i.e. the yogi) sit (in
meditation) for an hour, a half 'prahara' (i.e. about an hour
and a halO, a full 'prahara' (i.e. about three hours) or for as
long as possible.
Now, if he desires to rise up from his 'samadhi', he should
diberate over it without undoing the squatting posture
('paryanka') like this: although all these 'dharmas' are
uncreated in the ultimate sense but they still appear like
'maya' in varying and unthinkably attractive forms owing to a
certain conglomeration of causal factors ('hetu-pratyaya'); as
such, there will be no chance for a refutation ('uchheda
dri~ti') and no end to contradictions ('upavada'), because
nothing will come to hand on examination through 'prajfui'.
Hence, there is neither the context of a permanent view nor
any end to superimpositions ('samaropa'). Here, those whose
understanding is baffled owing to the qmfusion of their
wisdom-eye, perform a lot of karmas through self-conceit and
so go on wandering in the cyclic round. Those who,
completely indifferent towards the world, without
'mahakaru~', continue to practise the perfection of giving86
('dana') etc. for 'sattvas', descend into the enlightenment of
the 'sravaka' and the 'pratyeka-buddha' owing to their being
devoid of effort ('upayaya').
Those regarding the world to be without true existence
('nissavabhava') and vowing to uplift the entire world
through the force of 'mahakarut:ta', their intellect being
unbaffled as a magician's, fulfil the accumulation of 'punya'
and 'jnana'- collections, attain the Tathagata status and they
will live forever till the end of the world by fulfilling all the
joys and welfare of the world. They, due to the force of their
'jiiana '- collections, having removed all 'klesas' never fall into
'samsara' nor do they descend into 'nirvat:ta' owing to the
accumulations of immense and immeasurable 'punya'
through their concern for all beings; such as these become the
sustenance of all beings. 'Therefore, I, desirous of the
happiness and comfort of all 'sattvas' and aspiring for 'un-
fixed nirvat:ta' ('apratisthita nirvat:ta'), should always
endeavour for immense 'punya' and 'jnana' collections, thus
should he think.' As has been said in A.rya Tathagata-guhya
sutra also; "Jftana accumulation is for the removal of all
defilements (' klesas '), 'punya '- accumulation is for the
sustenance of all 'sattvas'." Therefore, the lord bodhisattva
mahasattva should always endeavour for 'punya-sambhara'
and 'jiiana sambhara' i.e. accumulation of merit and accu-
mulation of knowledge. Arya Tathagatotpatti-sambhava-siitra
also says; "There is only one reason for Tathagata's rebirth.
What is it? 0 Jinaputra (son of the conqueror)! Tathagatas are
reborn owing to tens of thousands of immeasureable causes.
What are those, then? (They are) the causes for the rightful
fulfillment of their insatiate accumulations of merit and
knowledge." Arya Vimala-kirti-nirdesa also states. "The
tathagata 's bodies are born of hundreds of merits, of all the
meritorious dharmas, and of the countless 'roots of noble
dharmas ('kusal-dharma miila') etc."
Then, undoing the 'paryanka' posture slowly he should
offer obeisance to all the Buddhas and boddhisattvas stationed
in the ten directions and, after worshipping and eulogisingBHA V ANAKRAMA-III
them, he should perform such vows as 'aryabhadracharya' etc.
After that he should engage in the attainment of all such
'punya' accumulations as 'dana' etc., which have been
dedicated (for the sattvas' well-being) through such supreme
enlightenment as is embraced by 'sunyata' and 'karuQ.a'.
Those who believe 'sattvas' under the $Way of good and
bad 'karma', born of the contrarities of the mind, wander in
'samsara' after enjoying heaven etc. as the fruit of their
actions' and those who think nothing, perform no actions and
hope to be released from 'samsara' without needing to think
anything or do any 'kusala karma' believing that conduct such
as 'giving' (dana) etc. has been indicated for ignorant fools; it
is through people of both these categories that entire
Mahayana gets negated and Mahayana being root of all
vehicles (yana), its negation will spell the negation of all other
vehicles. The attitude of 'nothing need be thought of' will
mean the negation of 'prajfia' (wisdom) which analyses
phenomena ('bhutas ') as analysis or examination alone is the
root of true knowledge ('jfiana'). When that is negated,
transcendental wisdom will also be negated owing to the
severing of its root. With 'lokottraprajfia' gone, omniscience
('sarva-karjfiata') will also get negated. To say that beneficient
conduct like 'dana' etc. should not be practised will invariably
lead to the negation of 'upayaya' such as giving ('dana').
Briefly speaking, 'prajfia' and 'upayaya' alone constitute
Mahayana. As Arya Gaya-sir~a says; "These two alone are the
bodhisattva's way. What two? Well, 'prajfia' (discriminating
wisdom) and 'upayaya' (meaningful effort)." Tathagata-
guhya-siitra too says, "Prajfia and upayaya' are meant for the
accumulation of all the perfections (' paramitas ') by bodhi-
sattvas." Therefore, the denial or negation of Mahayana will
create a massive 'karma' superimposition ('karmavaraQ.a').
So the wise person desirous of his own good should abandon
even from a distance, like poisoned food, such poisonous
words as are opposed to scriptures ('agama') and logic
('yukti') from people who deny Mahayana, are of selfish
intent, render not service to the learned and imbibe not the88
spirit of Tathagata 's words and who, as self -destroyers, are
also destroying others.
Negation of the analysis of things ('bhuta ') will spell the
denial of the most prominent of bodhi components, the
'pravichaya' (analysis) of dharmas. In the absence of 'bhuta'
examination, with what will the yogi make his mind enter
immaculateness ('nirvikalpata') when the mind has been
prone to fixation in such entities as form ('riipa') etc. since
time immemorial? If it is said that all dharmas can be
understood without recolleted-ness and without mentalisa-
tion, it is not appropriate, because all experienced things
(' dharmas ') cannot be subjected to non-recollectedness and
non-mentalisation without 'bhuta' examination. 'I do not
have to recollect these 'dharmas'; I do not have to mentalise
them'; if, by thinking in this manner, the contemplation of
non-recollectedness and non-mentalisation is practised on
those dharmas, they are bound to become recolleted and
mentalised. If the mere absence of recolleted-ness and
mentalisation is taken for non-recollectedness and non-
mentalisation, it has to be thought out as to how the is-not-ness
of both can come about. To have a 'hetu' (cause) for
'abhava'(is-not-ness) is inappropriate. How can immaculation
('nirvikalpata') ensure from the 'nirnimitta' (non-
conceptualised) and the non-mentalised? Even an
unconscious person being devoid of recollectedness and
mentalisation can also be regarded as being in the 'nirvikalpa'
state as a consequence of such stupor ('avikalpata'). There
is no other means except 'bhuta' -examination by which
non-recollectedness ('a-smriti') and non-menatalisation ('a-
manasikarita') can be brought about.
Undoubtedly, even during 'a-smriti' and 'a-manasikara'
the non-self-existence of 'dharmas' cannot be (fully) realised
with 'bhuta' examination (alone). 'Dharmas' are not empty
(' sunya ') by nature'; now, this kind of a stipulation cannot be
pierced through except through an analysis of emptiness.
The removal of the 'avaral)a' is not possible without the
realisation of 'sunyata'; otherwise, everyone everywhereBHA V ANAKRAMA-III
will be entitled to 'mukti' (liberation).
What of the yogi who does not practise recollectedness
('smriti') and mentalisation ('manasikara') owing to his giving
up the former or out of sheer folly, how can such an extremely
foolish person become a yogi? Without examination of things
and being engaged in 'a-smriti' and 'a manasikara', he will
become engrossed with delusion alone which will snuff out
the light of true knowledge. If he is not shorn of re-
collectedness nor is he foolish, how will he be able to
practise non-recollectedness and non-mentalisation without
'bhuta' examination~ It would be appropriate to say that such
a person does not recollect while recollecting, does not see
while seeing. How, with the practice of non-recollectedness
and non-mentalisation, will buddha-dharmas like the
previously residual and continued recollectedness
('anusmriti') 44 etc. arise owing to the (inherent) contradiction
involved? The experiencing of cold as opposed to heat does
not permit the feeling of heat!
If the 'samadhi '-proficient yogi has any psychological
knowledge, he must invariably have an 'alambana'. The
common people cannot be suddenly enlightened without an
'alambana' (prop). By what opposing thing is the super-
imposition of mental defilements ('klesas') removed? There
is no possiblity for cessation of the. mind 45 for the common
person who has not attained the Fourth Dhyana. 46 Therefore,
non-recolletedness and non-mentalisation that have been
spoken of for a good religious conduct ('saddharma') or true
'dharma' should also be viewed in the context of 'bhuta'
examination only and not otherwise. So, when the yogi,
examining through correct 'prajiia', does not observe the
arising of any 'dharma' in all the three times (i.e. the past, the
present and the future), how shall he (be able to) do
'manasikara' and 'smara~a' (mentalisation and recollection)?
He who even during the three times, has not experienced the
'asattvas' 17 in the ultimate sense, how may he have
recollectedness or mentalisation? For this very reason, he
enters the immaculate 'jnana' in which all contradictions have90
cessation or are warded off. Entering it, he realises 'sunyata'
and realising it, he removes all snares of deviation.
The practitioner of wisdom ('prajfta') coupled with
means ('upayaya') becomes totally proficient in 'samvriti'
(the apparent) and 'paramartha' (the ultimate) truths. So by
attaining knowledge bereft of superimpositions, he attains all
'Buddha-Dharmas'. Therefore, without 'bhuta' analysis,
there is neither the dawn of true knowledge nor the removal
of 'klesa' cover. It is said in Manjusri Vikurvata-sutra;
"0 Darika! 48 how does a bodhisattva become the victor in the
battle'? (Reply) '0 Manjusri! by not coming across any
'dharmas' after repeated examination". Hence the yogi, with
his eye of knowledge wide open and after totally overcoming
his 'klesa' foes with the weapon of 'prajna' wanders about
without fear un-like a frightened coward with eyes closed. It
is said in Arya Samadhiraja-sutra also: "If one examines non-
self 'dharmas' and, examining them, meditates, it becomes a
cause for the attainment of 'nirvaQ.a' fruit; any other cause
('hetu') brings not peace." Sutra-sammuchaya also says;
"Himself engaged in the practice of 'vipa5yana', if one does
not help others engage themselves in 'vipa5yana', it (i.e. his
own practice) becomes an evil act."
'Vipasyana' is of the nature of 'bhuta' analysis; this has
been stated in Arya Ratna-megha and Sandhinirmochana etc.
Says Arya Ratnamegha; "The knowledge of the non-true
existence of things (' nissvabhavata ') through analysis with
insight ('vipasyana') is termed as entering the 'nimimitta' ."
Arya Lankavatara also says; "0 wise one! the 'bhavas' when
examined by the intellect do not yield any 'jnana' about their
individual and general characteristics. That is why it has been
said that all 'dharmas' are non-existent. If 'bhuta'-
examination is not done, it will lead to a refutation of the
many kinds of analytical methods suggested in the 'sutras' by
the lord. As such it would be proper to say that we, of little
intellect and less courage, are incapable of (understanding)
erudite ('bahusruti') 49 analysis. The lord had praised
erudition a lot; therefore, it is never appropriate to refute it."BHA V ANAKRAMA-III
It has been said in Punarbrahma-pariprichha: "Those who get
engaged in thinking over un-thinkable 'dharmas', experience
perversion of thought ('ayoni.Sa'). 50 Also, those who imagine as
created 'dharmas' which are uncreated in the ultimate sense
and regard them as transient and full of suffering as 'sravakas'
do, get into the 'ayonisa' (perversion) state owing to their
thinking being bereft of (the two factors of) 'samaropa'
(superimposition) and 'apavada' (contradiction)", (that is,
because they do not consider the two factors).
Whatever has been said in refutation of such tendencies is
not a refutation of (the desirability of) 'bhuta'-analysis which
has been recommended by all the 'sutras'. Brahma-
pariprichha-siitra itself says; "Chitta-sura (valiant of mind)
bodhisattva has said that he who thinks over all dharmas with
the mind and remains uncovered and untouched by them is
called a 'bodhisattva' as such." Again it says': "How do they
(i.e. the bodhisattvas) become valorous? Well, when they do
not find the 'sarvajiiata' mind while looking for it, they alone
will become wise who examine abstract ('yonisa'), 'dharmas';
.they categorise 'dharmas' as illusion ('maya') and mirage
(' marichi ')."
It should be known that whenever the din of words like
'achintya' (unthinkable) etc. is heard, it is meant for pro-
pounding the analysis of the core entity (' pratyatma-
vedaniyata ') of 'dharmas' for the refutation of the ego of such
people as believed in the realisation of the reality ('tattva')
only through hearing and deliberating it; it also refutes
'ayonisa' of the mind (i.e. the mind's adherence to wrong,
pervert 'dharmas'). It certainly does not mean a refutation of
'bhuta' examination; otherwise, as already stated, it would
mean a contradiction of various arguments ('yukti') and
scriptures ('agama'). Whatever knowledge is gained through
'prajiia' born of hearing and thinking should be contemplated
upon through meditational wisdom and nothing else. A horse
runs (well) on its familiar race-course, so 'bhuta' examination
or 'the analysis of all phenomena' must be practised.
Although it may (tum out to) be of an opposite nature but,92
owing to its being of the quality of correct mentalisation
('yonisa manasikara'), it generates undifferentiated
('nirvikalpik') 'jnana'. With this belief, he who is desirous of
such 'jnana' should practise this (examination of 'bhutas').
Arya Ratna-kiita says that with the generation of the fire of
right 'nirvikalpa jnana', it will bum itself away in that fire like
two faggots burning themselves out in the fire generated by
their own rubbing ('gha~I)a') together.
It is (sometimes) said that no 'kusa1a' (meritorious) acts
etc. need be done as the exhaustion of 'karma' leads to
liberation. Well, such a belief will (only) lead to 'ajivaka-
vada'.51 That the exhaustion of 'karma'leads to liberation has
not been propounded in the Lord's word. How then? (i.e.
how can 'mukti' or release come about)? Well, through the
cessation of 'klesas' (mental deftlements). It is not possible to
exhaust action ('karma') (already) performed since eternity,
because they are innumerable. While suffering the fruit of
such actions during lower births, more karmas are generated.
The non-cessation of 'klesas' makes them the cause of the
non-cessation of 'karma' just as the light of a lamp will not
cease without the lamp being put out. It has already been
stated that the cessation of 'klesas' is impossible for one who
denies 'vipa8yana' (insight). If it is agreed that the practice of
'vipasyana' is essential for the cessation of 'klesas', 'klesa'
cessation itself will give liberation and the labour for the
exhaustion of 'karma' will become meaningless. To say that
non-meritorious (a-kusala) action should not be performed is
appropriate. Why 'kusal karma' is refuted is that if its
performance generates 'samsara', it is not proper. And, only
those 'kusala' acts' are 'samsara' prone which are born of all
the contrarities of 'self' etc. and (certainly) nbt the actions of
boddhisattvas which are born of great compassion
('mahakaruQ.a') and their dedication of 'punya' (pariQ.amita)
through transcendental enlightenment. So it has been
indicated about the 'pariQ.amana' (dedication) of these very
ten 'kusala dharmas' as (acts oO extreme purification in the
'sadhana' (practice) of the 'sravakas', the 'pratyeka-buddhas',BHA VANAKRAMA-III
the 'bodhisattvas' and the Buddhas. Arya Rantnakuta also
states; "Like the collection of water from all the great rivers
into the great ocean, the root-merits ('kusala-mula') collected
by the bodhisattvas through various means, after being
transformed into 'sarvajiiata' become one taste (i.e.
equanimity) in (that) omniscence (which reveals the true
nature of things)."
The wealth that the Buddhas and the bodhisattvas earn in
the shape of (their) physical form ('rupa-kaya'), field-
purification ('ksetra-parisuddhi'), 52 aura (prabha), 5'
proliferation ('parivara'), 54 full happiness ('mahabhoga') 55
etc. is the fruit of the accumulation of 'punya'; so has it been
mentioned here and there in the siitras by the Lord; these too
will get negated. The refutation of 'kusala' conduct also
means · the refutation of the vow of emancipation
('pratimoksa samvara) 56 etc. Thus his (i.e. the yogi's) shorn
head and begging bowl etc. will be of no avail; when 'kusala'
action becomes indifferent to 'purification' ('abhisamskara ') it
will lead to indifference towards 'samsara' and towards
actions for the sake of 'sattvas'. In consequence, it will also
make 'bodhi' (enlightenment) a distant thing. It has been said
in Arya-sandhi-nirmochana; "I have not spoken of supreme
true enlightenment for those who totally tum away from
actions for 'sattvas' and from the rectification of 'samskaras."
Arya Upali-pariprichha also says. "To be indifferent towards
'samsara' constitutes great misconduct for 'bodhisattvas'.
Accepting 'samsara' is supreme good conduct." Arya-
Vimala-kirti-nirdesa also states: going into samsara with
'upayaya' is release for boddhisattvas. 'Prajiia' without
'upayaya' is shackling, 'upayaya' with 'prajiia' is release;
'prajiia' with 'upayaya' is release." Arya Gaganaganja says,
"'J;o be averse towards 'samsara' is evil kanna for bodhisattvas."
Also said in Siitra-sammuchaya, "Even 'asamskrita dharmas'
are to be analysed and to be averse to 'samskrita dharmas' is
evil 'karma'." If he knows the 'bodhi'-path but does not
investigate the way of Perfections ('parmita-yana'), it is
tantamount to doing 'mara-karma' (evil 'karma'). It is again94
said therein; "From fixation of the mind in 'dana' etc. to
fixation of the mind in 'prajna' is evil karma ('mara karma')."
Now in this assertion there is no forbidding of practising
'dana' etc. but what has been forbidden is the addiction of the
mind to the ego and I-ism, in the concept of the 'grahya' (the
object to be achieved) and 'grahaka' (the person who
receives or achieves) - that is, the received and the
receiver, contrary fixation in the donor's 57 charity ('dana').
'Dana' etc. dependent on contrary fiXation is impure, 'mara
karma'. Otherwise, 'dhyana' etc. will also not be worth
practising, how will, then, release come about?
Whatever 'dana' etc. is given because of or by keeping in
view the variety of 'sattvas' by the donor ('aupalam-bhika') is
impure. Arya Gaganaganja propounds it thus: '"dana' etc.
which indicate differentiation among beings ('sattvaa') are the
acts of the devil ('mara karma;)". So it has been stated in Tri-
skandha-parir:tamana. "'Dana'(giving), 'sila' (conduct),
'ksanti' (forbearance) 'veerya' (valour or effort), 'dhyana'
(meditation), 'prajiia' (wisdom), not aware of the 'samata'
(equivalence) of all these by one who falls into obtainment (of
'dana' etc.), for such a one I teach as to how to protect 'sila'
(character) from diseased 58 'sila' or misconduct (born oO
lapses 59 in 'dana' and 'ksanti-bhavana' (contemplation of
forbearance) from the nomenclature of 'I' (sva) and 'other'
('para') etc." Here too such giving (dana) etc. which rises
above the contrarities of differentiation ('nanatva'), becomes
purified for the giver ('aupalam-bhika'); so has it been
propounded and not the forbidding of 'dana' etc. in toto;
otherwise, 'dana' etc. would have been wholly commended
as such, and its descending into contrary obtainment would
not have found mention: It has been said in Brahma-
pariprichha also: "all conduct ('charya') is 'parikalpita.! 60
(based on factor or causes); 'bodhi alone is without 'hetu' or
'pratyaya' (n~parikalpa). 61 " Owing to the varying nature of
practices for the generation of 'bodhi' (enlightenment), even
'bodhi' is (sometimes) mentioned as 'parikalpita' (created or
fashioned). What has been propounded here is that to stay inBHA VANAKRAMA-111
a state of effortless abstraction is the explanation 62 of the
bodhisattva alone and none else's. What has been said is
about the uncreatedness of 'dana' etc. in the ultimate sense
and not that no practice (of it) should be performed.
The Buddhas who were honoured by the Lord in
Dipankara 63 - avadana and whose names could not be enu-
merated in an aeon ('kalpa') (by the lord) were never
forbidden from any practice (' charya ') during their bQdhi-
sattva period. Dipankara also did not refute any of the lord's
'charyas' However, when he (i.e bodhisattva Dipankara) was
noticed, in the state of 'santa animitta-vihara' (a state of
absolute equipoise and tranquillity) during the eighth
'bhumi', he expounded this (teaching) but there also he did
not forbid its practice. The bodhisattva's supreme revelling in
the 'animitta' 64 during the eighth 'bhumi' has been forbidden
by the Buddhas in Da5abhumiSvara 'lest they may attain their
'nirvana' here itself'. If no 'charya' (practice) is to be
performed at all, it would negate all that has been said earlier
(about the bodhisattva's charya).
Again, Brahma-pariprichha says: "He gives in charity but
does not desire its fruit; he guards his 'sila' but it is never
superimposed." "0 Brahma! become non-returning
('avaivartika') 65 in Buddha dharmas when equipped with
four 'dharmas'." What four? Accepting the unlimited
'samsara', veneration and worship of limitless Buddhas etc.
will stand against anything. It is proper to say that practice
should be done neither with mild senses (' mridu indriya ') 66
nor with sharp senses ('tiksal).a indriya') 67 alone, for in this
way, for the bodhisattvas established in the first stage to the
tenth, the 'charya' (practice) of 'dana' etc. is generated nor
does he roam 68 not in the residual appendices; 69 thus has it
been said. It is improper to say that one who has entered the
'bhumi' is of 'soft senses'. As has been stated in Arya Upali-
pariprichha; "Only he who is established in the non-
generating 'dharma-ksanti' should practise renunciation
('tyaga'),7° great renunciation (mahatyaga) 71 and total
renunciation ('ati-tyaga').7 2 " Sutra samuchaya also says: 'the96
bodhisattva, equipped with the attainment of the six
perfections, functions through the 'riddhi' (special power) of
Tathagata. There is nothing speedier than the speed of
Tathagata's power. And, for the boddhisattvas, there is no
path speedier than that of the six perfections, and the ten
'bhumis'." The siitra says that mental generation (i.e.
tendencies) is refined gradually like the refining of gold.
Arya Lankavatara and Dasa-bhumisvara also state: "When the
bodhisattva gets established in 'tathata' he enters the first
'bhumi'. After that, step by step, he enters the 'Tathagata
bhumi, after refining the preceding 'bhumis'. Therefore,
there is no other gateway than that of 'bhumis' and
'paramitas' (perfections) to simultaneously enter the city of
It is improper to say that as all the Six Perfections come
within the ambit of 'dhyana' and that all of them are fulfilled
by its practice, so other perfections like dana etc. need not be
practised. If it were so then, owing to the six perfections
coming within the ambit of Lord Buddha's (gomaya-
mal)<,iala)73 only maQ.<,iala, 74 should be practised and not
'dhyana' etc. Even a 'sravaka' who has entered the
absorption (' samapatti ') of 'nirodha '-samadhF 5 will be
deemed to have attained the fulfilment of the six perfections
through the non-recurrence ('a-samudachara') of the
objective (' nimitta ') etc. In that case there will be nothing to
proclaim the contrast between the 'sravaka' and the
bodhisattva. The bodhisattvas must practise the six
perfections under all circumstances. In order to substantiate
it, the lord has shown the presence of all other 'paramitas'
(perfection) in every single 'paramita'. It is said in
Sarvadharma-vaipulya; "0 Maitreya! about this acquisition of
the six perfections which has been spoken of for the
enlightenment of bodhisattvas, the ignorant persons would
say that the bodhisattvas should be well instructed in the
perfection of wisdom ('prajfiii-paramita') alone, of what avail
is his in.terest in other 'paramitas'? They regard the other
'paramitas as 'stained'. Then, 0 Ajita! do you take thatBHA V ANAKRAMA-III
Kasiraja (the king of KaSi) to be a fool Oit. of tainted wisdom)
who gave away pieces of his flesh to the falcon in lieu of that
of the pigeon? 'No Lord' replied Maitreya. The Lord continued,
'0 Maitreya! Whatever 'kusal-mulas' (root-merits) equipped
with six perfections were earned by me while practising the
conduct of the bodhisattvas, did they do any harm to me? 'No
lord!' replied Maitreya. The lord said, '0 Ajita!' you also
practised perfect 'dana' paramita (the perfection of giving)
for sixty aeons ('kalpas') and equally practised 'prajiia-
paramita' (the perfection of Wisdom) for sixty 'kalpas'. Even
then, these ignorant persons will say that a single path like
that of 'sunyata alone will lead to enlightenment (bodhi).
Such a person will become impure of conduct ('charya') or
practice." While practising 'sunyata' alone they will enter
into the 'sravaka 's' 'nirval)a'. Therefore, 'prajiia must be
practised with 'upayaya'.
Acharya Nagarjunapada says in Siitra-sammuchaya; " A
bodhisattva should not practise serious dharmas without the
skill of means ('upayaya')." Herein, the acharya has
expounded what he got from sources like Arya Vimalakirti-
nirdesa etc. and not that these are the words of Acharya
Nagarjunapada (himself). It is not proper for learned
observors to forsake the Lord's words which comprise
scriptures ('agama') and logic ('yukti') and accept the words
of ignorant fools. It is said in Arya Ratna-kuta: "Siinyata which
comprises the blessing of omnipotence ,and is accompanied
by such 'kusalas' (merits) as giving ('dana') etc. should be
meditated upon as such." And again; "0 Kasyapa! just as the
king performs all his functions with the assistance of his
minister, so also does the 'prajiia' of the bodhisattvas
equipped with the skill of 'upayaya' perform all the tasks of
He who practises 'sunyata' only will not have entry into
'nirval)a'. The lord has said in Arya Tathagata-guhya siitra;
"One should not practise 'ekanta-nirlambana-chitta', i.e. th~
solitary propless mind; skill in means ('upayaya ') should also
be practised." To illustrate this, it is added, "0 Kulaputra! just98
as fire bums only with its requisite material ('upadana') and is
quietened in its absence, so also the mind is fired by its prop
('alambana') and becomes quietened in its absence. The
bodhisattva, with his 'prajiia-paramita' (perfection of
wisdom) honed and equipped with the skill of 'upayaya'
knows how to calm down 'alambana' but will not calm down
the one with benificent roots. In him no 'klesalambana' (the
prop of mental defilements) arises but he is established in the
'prop of perfection' ('paramita-alambana') instead. He
examines the 'alambana' of 'sunyata' but will look to
'mahakarut)a' (great compassion) as the 'alambana' for all
sattvas. In this way, '0 Kulaputra! the bodhisattva attains the
mastery of 'alambana' with his refined perfection of
'prajiia'(wisdom) and the skill of 'upayaya' (means)." So
saying in detail, he further amplifies; "The bodhisattva has no
such 'alambana' as is not meant for the accumulation of the
knowledge of the reality of things, that is, Buddhas 'jiiana'
The bodhisattva, all whose 'alambanas' get transformed into
supreme enlightenment, alone is skilful in 'upayaya' and
such a one sees all 'dharmas' as embracing 'bodhi'. Even
then, 0 Kulaputra! there is nothing in the three thousand or
many thousands of 'loka-dhatus' (wordly components) which
is not meant for the 'sattvas' enjoyment. 0 Kulaputra! there is
no such 'alambana' which the skilful-in-effort bodhisattva
does not consider useful for his enlightenment." Thus said at
length. In this manner, the acquisition of wisdom ('prajiia')
and means ('upayaya') by bodhisattvas has been indicated in
an unlimited number of sutras. If he himself cannot start the
valorous effort of accumulating 'punya' collection through
'dana' etc. it is not proper for him to preach it to others as that
would be tantamount to deceiving both himself and others.
It has been propounded in the 'yukti' (literature of logic)
and 'agama' (scripture) that the bodhisattvas, after 'bhuta-
examination' should make a collection of such 'punya'
accumulations as 'dana' etc. So the wise ones have said that
one should forsake like poison the words of egotistical, half-
read persons and act in accordance with the nectar like wordsBHAVANAKRAMA-III
of such learned scholars as Acharya Nagarjuna and others by
generating mahakaruQa for all 'mahasattvas' remaining
unattached as a magician and should endeavour to uplift the
whole world through the transformation of all beneficient
practices like 'dana' etc. into 'anuttra-samyaka-sambodhi'
(transcendental, supreme enlightenment). It has been said in
Arya Dharma-samgiti, ''Just as a magician endeavours to undo
his own creation and being already aware of its illusionary
aspect, is unattached to it, so also the bodhisattva, conscious
of illusionary nature of the three states of existence
('tribhava') past, present and future and having attained
perfect enlightenment is ready (to do his duty) towards the
world because he already knows its reality."
In this way, he who constantly practises 'prajii.a' and
'upayaya' with reverence, his mental emanations having
gradually matured, more and more of extremely pure
'ksar:ta' 76 is generated for him. His meditation on the meaning
of things having attained excellence, he becomes aware of
the extremely clear 'dharma dhatu' 77 (the true essence of
things) devoid of all fictionality ('kalpana-jala'). He attains
traqscendental knowledge as clear as the calm, windless
lamp. He then achieves the 'alambana' of the ultimate of
things and enters the 'darasana marga'. He attains the first
'bhumi' (stage). After refining the succeeding stages one after
another and removing all accumulated 'avarr:tas' like
(refining) gold, attains unattached and unassailable 'jii.ana'
and reaches 'Buddha bhumi' (the stage of Buddhahood), the
foundation of all virtue; also he obtains 'alambana' in the
shape of the fulfilment of his work. Therefore, those who
desire 'Buddha-hood' should endeavour to tread the Middle
May all people a~tain the Middle path as the result of
whatever 'punya' (merit) I may have earned by indicating the
'madhya marga' (middle path) in this way.
Good people, after removing the dirt of jealousy etc.
remain insatiate, like the ocean with its waters and, after good
examination, continue accepting good words just as the100
(royal) swan gladly weans milk from water.
Hence, the learned people, after overcoming the
prejudices of their minds, should accept good words from
even the ignorant.
Here ends tlie fmal Bhavanakrama composed by Acharya
1. Bhavanakrama - 'bhavana' is meditation; it consists of
visualisation and contemplation of a resolve, an object or an idea
and strictly meditating on it in accordance with vows undertaken;
the sequence of meditational process. For example, 'maitri',
'kai1JQ:i', 'mudita' and 'upekSa' are the four exalted states of the
mind. Also called 'brahma-vibara' the 'bhavana' of these four
leads the practitioner to 'samyaka' pratipatti or true realisation, his
mental deftlements having evaporated.
2. 'adikarmika' - a novice initiate who wishes to pursue the
bodhisattva path, of the four-fold tantra quadrangle in Mabayana-
kriya-tantra, charya-tantra, yog-tantra and anuttar-tantra -
kriyatantra's standard text is Adikarma-pradeep which deals with
the rules of initiation and subsequent conduct as prescribed for an
3. sarvajiiata - the knowledge of the true nature of all phenomena,
that is, 'nissvabbavata'.
4. karllQa - compassion.
5. bodhichitta - enlightened mind.
6. pratipatti - perception, comprehension.
7. dharmah - disciplines, instructions, practices.
8. bhadanta - an honorific for a realised monk.
9. p'iirvangama- that which goes ahead of a thing; precursor, fore-
10. as at 9 above.
11. adhi~thana - object of contemplation, focal idea to reflect on.
12. sambhara - accumulation, collection.
13. trividha dukha - three-fold suffering of bo_}y, mind and speech.
14. traidbatuka- beings living in the three worlds of humans, gods
and hell dwellers, the earth, the heavens, the hells.
15. pretas- disembodied spirits, 'preta-loka' is one of the six realms
of existence after death.
16. tiryaka - another realm of existence where one is born as a
dragging, crawling beast.
17. samadhana-chetsa- of composed mind.
18. p~ma - tranquillity.
19. anusaya - impurity.generated by feelings of attachment, lust etc.
20. kamavaclt~ra- one who always wanders in the realm of desire or
kama; it is also equated with, 'deva-loka' by some as the gods
always dwell in 'kama'.
21. defilements born of actions.
22. suffering born of samskaras.102
23. chitta-samara - a mental attitude of total equality for all beings; it
is achieved through the practice of 'paratma-samatii' or by
exchanging your own self with others.
24. sama-pravritta - equitably disposed towards all; equal concern,
25. ni~panna - complete, full, equanimous.
26. bodhichitta - a mind that aspires after bodhi or the enlightenment
of a bodhisattva.
27. prarthniikaram- importunate, solicitous.
28. samyaka-sambodhi - the ultimate or correct knowledge of reality;
true cognition of 'bhuta-tathata'.
29. par-samadiipana- acquiring by others.
30. pratipatti - attainment of supreme knowledge.
31. vajra-ratna - adamantine gem; supreme, impenetrable substance.
32. chittotapada - generating the mind, inducing it towards
33. gu~- qualities.
34. §ravaka - Itt. hearer.
35. pratyeka-buddha - lit. solitary realiser.
36. paramitii - perfection
37. upayaya- means, practice.
38. diina-paramita- perfection of giving.
39. parjiia-paramita - perfection of wisdom.
40. praQidhi- vow, fixing the mind with determination.
41. ku§ala-mula- practices that lead to meritorious action, root-merit.
42. anumodana - commending.
43. siidharaQani- common, ordinary.
44. Buddha-dharma - pratices enjoined on a bodhisattva.
45. bodhi-sambhara - accumulation of the attributes of
46. vipiika - fruit, result in maturation of actions done.
47. iika§a-dhatu - the element of' space or sky.
48. buddha-k§etraQi - Buddha-fields, believed to be two dozen in
number; the Mahayana concept of the presence of more than one
Buddha simultaneously presiding in their own 'lokas' or worlds,
their 'k§etras' (fields) like the sukha-vati-vyuha of Amitabha
49. pranidhi-chitta - a mind fiXed on the goal of achieving bodhi.
50. Prasthan-chitta - a mind ready to travel on the path of bodhi.
51. samvar - vow.
52. sambhara - collection, accumulation.
53. kalyiil}a-mitra - jinas, bodhisattvas, realised ones, A kalyiil}a-mitra
is described as one who is capable of instructing in serious themes
and is equipped with extraordinary attributes, the foremost ofGLOSSARY-I
'kalyiQa-mitras' is Lord Buddha himself as revealed by him to
Ananda in the following words: 'mama hi Ananda
kalyilf)mitramaagmya 'jati-dbarmah sattvah 'jati-dhannama
ManjuSri as Ambara-raja; the story of.
aprama~- the four cordial virtues of 'maitri', 'karuQii', 'mudita'
and 'upek§a'- the 'brahma-viharas'- have been designated by
the scriptures as 'apramal}a', because they are limitless and
everlasting and they wash away the dirt of attachment, envy
jealousy and ill-will so that the bodhisattva may practise 'parahita'
or others' well-being.
samgraha-vastu- comprises the four-fold acquisition of love,
compassion, joy and detachement, the 'brahma-viharas'.
upayaya - lit. approaching, coming near, means; it also refers to
compassion or 'bhuta-daya' and to that state of samadhi in which
'prajna' is born. In the latter state it is 'upayaya pratyaya'.
samgrah-vastu - see 56 above.
k§etra-pam'Udhi- purifk-ation of the (bodhisattva's) field.
bahu-paiivsra sampata- the wealth of a large family or entourage
sattva paripaka-nirmal}a - helping maturation of sattvas
samklesa - defilements.
samgrah-jiiana- the knowledge of cultivating 'maitri', karul}i,
'mudita and upekSa'.
parichheda - analysis, discrimination.
bhumi - stage, level.
dasa-bhumi- ten stages of~ bodhisattva's 'sadhana', 'mudita',
'vi mala', 'prabhakari', 'archi~mati', 'sudurjaya', 'abhimukti',
'durangma', 'achala', 'sadhumati' and 'dharma-megha'.
'achala' or steadfast, the eighth stage of
vyuthana - the fourth of the five steps for the resolve to rise up
from a balanced 'dhyana' after a desired span of time, because
the first dhyana is not without its inherent shortcomings; the
resolve to rise ahove these is 'vyuthana'.
achala- the eighth 'bhumi' in which the seeker fully understands
the nissvabhavata of things and is not affected by the pleasures of
the body, the mind and the speech, he remains 'achala',
dharma-mukha-srota - the source of all dharma practice.
upasamhara - conclusion, finish.104
73. ksanti - one of the six perfections; in this context it is 'faith' -
'sradha' with 'ruchi' or interest in the pursuit of vows.
74. dasa-bala - an epithet of lord Buddha who possessed ten
singularly distinct powers; knowledge of all places, knowledge of
all time, knowledge of all the different spheres, knowledge of all
different kinds of emancipation, knowledge of other's conduct,
knowledge of the good and evil force of karma, knowledge of the
obstacles from klesas and the absorption of dhyana, knowledge of
previous lives; has pure, divine eyes and is capable of destroying
75. chatur-vaisarda - four great attributes ascribed to Lord Buddha;
1. his body was 'anasrva', pure, made up of flawless substances
and attributes; 2. he could assume unlimited 'rupakayas' and
bodies simultaneously at different places, 3. his powers were
immeasurable. 4. his glory and effulgence had no bounds.
76. santi-vimoksa-vihara - the state of calm abiding.
77. jfiana-mukhachintyta - a state of peace and steadiness born of
78. dharmata - the nature of dharmas or, all phenomena which is
'nissvabhavata' or 'sunyata'.
79. tathagata - one who has realised the 'tathata' or 'as it-ness' of
things, the 'as-it-ness' being their insubstantial non-true existence;
hence 'tathata' is identical with 'paramartha satya'.
80. dharma-dhatu- the essence of all 'dharmata' which is 'sunyata';
it is indentical with 'bhuta-koti', 'tathata' etc. 'dhatu' comprises
factors which join up to produce a phenomena and there are
eighteen 'dhatus' -six senses, six object, six cognitions. Of the six
object - dhatus the last is 'dharma-dhatu', which in itself
comprises sixty four dharmas.
81. sarvadharma sunyata - the emptiness of all phenomena.
82. sarva-dharmanuplabdhi - the non-existence of all phenomena.
83. avikalpa-dharmata - to understand the true nature of
phenomena; 'vikalpa' is defined as 'asrava partantra' or unclean
dependent as it is born of 'partyayas'; to rise above it is 'anasrava
vikalpa' or the unblemished alternative or 'avikalpa', the opposite
84. apramaoata - There are ten dharmas of a handsome mind
(sobhana chaitska); 'sradha' 'apramada', 'prasrabdhi', 'apeksa',
'hri' 'apatrapa' 'alobha' 'advesa' 'maitri' and 'ahimsa'.
'Apramapa' is one of.the f-our divisions of 'sobhana chaitsika' and
comprises 'karuoa' and 'mudita'; 'apramaoata' is handsome,
inimitable quality or nature.
85. abhinirhara --accumulation, appropriation; the various 'bhumis'GLOSSARY-I
are also called 'viharas' because the bodhisattvas roam about in
them for the 'abhinirhara' of 'ku8ala' or merit.
prabha-lllalJ.Qala - halo, aura of light around a divine being.
svaranga-vi§udhi - refinement of speech, in mantra recitation.
nirvikalpa - undifferentiated, transcendental without an
alternative or 'vikalpa'.
paryanta-gami - unlimited, extending in all directions, infinite.
aparyanta - limitless.
aparyanta - eternal
apramaQ.a-k§etra - the fields of illimitable compassion of a
apramaQ.a-sattva - unlimited hordes of sentient beings.
apramaQ.a dharma-vibhaktata - illimitable variety and division of
dharmas and their analyses.
abhinirhara dwara - door or entrance to the accumulation of
abhinirhara karma - action that leads to accumulation of karma.
adhimukti- final release from cyclic existence; also means 'faith'
avabodha - true enlightenment or knowledge of the ultimate
truth of all phenomena.
sarvajfia-jfianahhinirhara - the garnering of the knowledge of
'sarvajfiata' or of the ultimate truth of things, their 'nissvabhavata'.
parinirvaQ.a - release from cyclic existence.
avaran -upper crust, cover or lid of 'avidya' (ignorance) or
'pratitya' (the apparent) which hinders cognition of the reality or
'yathabhuta jfiana' of phenomena.
pratikSepa karma- contrary, contradictory action; neglecting etc.
§obhana samjfia- fair, correct cognition.
asobhana ~amjna- incorrect, ugly, unbecoming cognition.
pratikSapti- retards, obstructs.
samudagama - cultivation, generation.
upayaya-paramita- perfection of 'karuQ.ii' or compassion.
Ajit- name of a bodhisattva.
Kasiraja- King 'Sivi' of VariiQ.asi whose compassion was put to
test by god Indra; the latter in the guise a of preying falcon,
pounced on a pigeon; he offered to cut a piece of his own flesh as
compensation to the falcon if it released its prey from its talons;
when put in the scales the pigeon grew heavier and heavier in
weight and the compassionate king went on slicing pieces of his
flesh; finally, the god resumed his original form, blessed and
congratulated Kasiraja and made him whole before disappearing.106
111. Maitreya - a bodhisattva.
112. Kalpa - cosmic period; a fabulous period of time comprising
thousando; of years of mortals' time calculation; at the end of a
'kalpa', the world is annihilated.
113. naya - system or path; Mahayana consists of two 'nayas';
'paramita-naya' and 'mantra-naya'. It is said that Lord Buddha
taught the former at gridhra-kuta and the latter at 'gri-parvata'.
114. Paryavasna- end, conclusion.
115. pratistbapita - installed, established.
116. rupa-kaya - material form; also called 'nirmaQa-kaya', the
historical form of 'siikyamuni' which he assumed for the world.
117. ~tra- field, domain.
118. parivara - progeny, continuum, entourage.
119. viparyiisa- contrariety, delusion which makes one believe as real
or true what is unreal or untrue.
120. anta - limit.
121. samaropa- superimposition.
122. apavada - refutation, negation, contradiction.
123. lakgaQa - attributes, marks, signs; the 32 ordinary and 80 special
marks of Lord Buddha.
124. anuvyanjana- expression.
125. abhisamaya- true 'jnana'; it has two stages; 'dharma-~ti' i.e.
passion for dharma and 'dharma-dargana' or experiencing
126. dharma-kaya - the subtle form of Lord Buddha which is in-
corporeal, indescribable 'paramarthic' in essence and is the
equivalent to •gunyatii'.
127. sambhava- generation, creation.
128. udagl"'.thaQa - grasping, taking up, holding onto.
129. unmarga- deviation, wrong road.
130. vyapadega - appellation, designation.
131. samadhi- a state of meditational absorption; 'samyaka adheiyte
132. srutamayi - listening to and reading of scriptures etc.
133. agama - collection of scriptures.
134. chintiimayi - reflective, contemplative.
135. neetiirtha - intelligible meaning.
136. neyartha - dubious meaning.
137. bhutiirtha - that which has actually happened, real facts.
138. abhutiirtha - not a fact.
139. vichikitsa - doubt, uncertainty.
140. tirthika- those belonging to non-buddhistic schools of thought
like 'samkhya', 'vaise~ika', 'nirgrantha' and 'ajivakas'.GLOSSARY-I
141. nairiitamya- the theory of non-soul; there is no permanent entity
142. anutpad- non-generation, non-creation.
143. utpada - generation, creation.
144. abhinive5a - adherence to, relying on.
145. yoni5a- abstract meditation by which one realises 'anitya' and
146. yoni - path.
1:47. yonisa prichha - inquiring into the paramarthic state of
148. chakara-mukha- empty.
149. abhava-mukha- non-existent by nature.
150. isvara - the vedic concept of a supreme, omnipotent god.
151. kram5a- one after the other.
152. nirapekSattvata - owing to independence.
153. artha-kriya- action performed with a special purpose; it aims at
the attainment of the 'artha' (objective) and the giving up of the
154. samaropa - superimposition.
155. asata - that which is not.
156. akasa - space, void, Nagarjuna believed it to be beyond both
'bhava' and 'abhava'
157. nirodh -lit. 'cessation', the third of the four 'arya-saty.JS', it too is
beyond bhava and 'abhava'.
158. avyavadhana - no-interval or interim.
159. kSaQa - lit. 'moment'.
160. pinda - mass, body.
161. savayava - lit. 'with limbs'. alive active.
162. samvriti satya - apparent but illusory truth as distinguished from
'paramartha satya' or the ultimate truth of things.
163. vijiiana-cognition; skandha - lit. (heap), bundle, aggregate,
'vijnana' skandha' is one of the five such aggregates, the other
four being those of 'riipa', 'vedana', 'samjna' and 'samskara'.
164. aleeka - falsehood, meaningless.
165. maya - delusion.
166. nirabhil~ - without bias.
167. pratipatti- acquisition, comprehension, meditative realisation.
168. prithvi-kritsna - the first of the ten 'kritsnas'; the sanskrit 'kritsna'
becomes 'kasana' in pali, thus 'prithvi kritsna' generally came to
be called 'prithvi kasana' or 'kasina'; Pali 'patthvi kasana'; there
are forty 'kannasthanas', ten krisnas, ten a5ubhas, ten 'anusmritis'
four 'brahma-viharas', four 'arupya', one 'samjiia' and one
'vyuthana'. Why are 'kritsnas' so called? Because they attract the108
meditative aspecto; of the 'kritsna' (or entire) mind (chitta).
In 'prithvi kritsna ', the first of the eight dhyanas, the object of
concentration is an earthen pot at a lonenly place, extending the
sadhaka's reflective process to all names and synonyms of earth
('prithvi'); the exercise of dhyana through 'kritsna' is called
'samatha'- a state of total tranquillity; calm abiding.
samahita - one of a sedate mind; meditative equipoise; balanced.
adhivasana - commending, awareness.
veerya - persevering effort.
sila- conduct, to he cultivated as one of the six perfections.
papa-desana- indicating, confessing, stating, one's sins or faults,
it is the first step in bodhicharya.
punyanumodana - commending the qualities of virtuous living.
padmasana - sitting crosslegged in lotus posture; one of the more
comfortable 'asanas' or postures for meditation.
viksepa do~a- distraction; ignorance which leads to illusionary
views; one of the 'klesa-mahabhaumikas'.
alambana - an apparent, palable mental prop or support for
sadhana; for example, a 'ghata' (piture) as an accessory aid for
sunyata is of 18 types (though according to Haribhadra, it is of 20
types) as follows; adhyatma sunyata, bahirdha, sunyata-sunyata,
maha, paramartha, samskrita, asamskrita, atyanta, anavaragra,
prakriti, sarvadharma, laksaQa, upalambha, abhava-svabhava,
bhava, abhava, svabhava and parabhava 'sunyata'.
vastubheda- is of two kinds; 'suddha' and 'parikalpita'. The first
is paramartha state and the second a deviation from it being based
on 'kalpana' or imagination.
abhidharma- the third 'pitaka' or basket of Lord Buddha's word,
so called because of its three attributes of 'abhiksQyiita (ability to
elucidate many facets of the some dharma), 'abhibhavata' (ability
to refute other beliefs), and 'abhigatita' (ability to offer a tangible
exposition of the tenets of Buddha-dharma).
styana - lassitude.
akarmaQyata - do-nothing-ness; cowardice.
abhisamskara - refining, variation.
sva-rasa-viihi - of its own volition.
abhoga - effort.
satyabhoga - true effort.
sama-pravritti - 'sama' is second of the five steps by which
complete control over first dhyana is achieved; tendem.:y towardsGLOSSARY-I
'sama' or balance.
190. viksepa- one of the ten 'klesa-mahabhaumikas'; described as
'klista-samadhi' or complicated, confused samadhi.
191. samanvaharana- withdrawal of the senses from the world.
192. do~a - fault, shortcoming.
193. kausidya- sloth, it is the opposite of 'veerya'.
194. alambana sampramo~a - forsaking the (meditational) prop or
195. laya- mental lethargy, inert absorption.
196. audhatya - insolence, arrogance.
197. anabhoga- effortless.
198. abhoga - effort.
199. prahana samskara- tendency to eradicate.
200. sraddha- faith; it is called 'chitta-prasada'.
201. chhanda - the desire to act, perform, it has been defined as
202. vyayama - hard work, industriousness.
203. prasrabdhi - activeness of body and mind in yoga-sadhana.
204. smriti - non-forgetfulness.
205. samprajfiiiya - awareness, mental alertness.
206. chetana - it is defined as that consciousness which refines the
207. upekSa - detachment.
208. abhisamaya pratyaya -factors that lead to 'samyaka' or true
jiiana; comprises two parts; 'dharma-ksanti' or generation of
interest (ruchi) in dharma and 'dharma-jiiana' or the actual
knowledge of (or personally experienced) dharma.
209. anabhoga - without effort.
210. abhoga- effort, it is also defined as 'anyayana mansikara' or
contemplation of other paths.
211. riddhi - prosperity, affluenc~.
212. karmaQyata- skill, the ability to perform.
213. arupi-samapatti - absorption in the formless aspect in dharma
meditation, 'samiipatti loka' consists of 'rupa-loka' and 'arupa-
loka', the sattvas possessing healthy, beautiful bodies in the
former and being without form in the latter; their realisation is in
accordance with the state of 'samapatti'.
214. vimokSa- deliverance, release.
215. vedana- feeling; the second of the five 'skandhas'.
216. anagamya- inaccessible, undefined.
217. prathama dhyana- 'samadhi' is of two types; 'upachara' and
'arpaQii'; of forty 'karma-sthanas' ten help in achieving
'upachara' or what may be called 'peripheral samiidhi'; the110
remaining thirty 'karmasthiinas' help in attaining 'arpaQi' or
The first dhyana is achieved through five steps; 1. avarjana -
ftxing the mind in meditation for a specified period. 2. 'sama'- to
ftx dhyina in the five aspects of 'vitarka', 'vichara' 'priti', 'sukha'
and 'ekagrata'. 3. 'adhi~ana' - the ability to ftx dhyana in a trice
(ten times 'sphota' or clicking of fingers). 4. 'vyuthana'- ability
to rise up from dhyana after a specified period; 5. 'pratyaveksana'
ability to analyse and observe dearly what occurs from dhyana.
abhibhava - dominant, powerful.
ayatana- door, entrance.
akara - form.
atma-samjfia - body consciousness.
udreka - excessive, overwhelming.
chitta-matra - lit. 'mind only'; term used as a synonym of
tathata- lit. 'such-ness', things as they are in the ultimate
analysis; term used as the equivalent to paramar.tha tattva,
'supreme enlightenment, 'sunyata' etc.
nirabhisa - lit. 'without splendour', formless; without fallacious
nairatmya-jfiana - the knowledge of the non- self doctrine of
dharmas, of the ultimately non-substantial nature of things.
avyatireka - dissimilarity; difference.
advya jfiana - the knowledge of the non-duality of things;
paramatattva - ultimate essence; supreme truth of all
samayaka joana - correct or right knowledge.
vaikalya - bafflement; confusion.
asamjfii samapatti - meditational equipoise or samadhi attainable
by the yogi in the fourth Dhyana, or release; in fact, the result of
this 'samapatti' is not 'utpatti' but 'nirodha' like a 'seni' or bridge
over a river serving to retard the flow.
raga - vehement desire; attachment.
timira-do~a - clouded eyesight; kind of blindness; catract; one
who suffers from it is called 'taimarika'.
yuganadha - united, two-fold.
upalambha - acquirement.
anupalambha - non-acquirement.
avasthana lakSQa - staidness.
prapancha - deceit; fraud.GLOSSARY-I
241. bhava- comprises two things; 'vyavahira-akara' and 'dharma-
trata guna, i.e. change due to change of 'avastha' or situation in a
dharma and the basic quality or characteristic of a dharma.
242. a-bhava- also of two kindo;; 'buddhi piirvaka' and 'abuddhi-
piirvaka' i.e. the is-not-ness of a thing due it, extinction and the act
of constant extinction.
243. tri-kiila - past, present and future.
244. vyapattva - permeableness.
245. vyapaka - pervading.
246. vyapya - permeable.
247. jiieyavaraQll - cover of ignorance which impedes the dawn of
248. kJegiivaraQa - cover of mental defilements.
249. samvriti -two types of truth -the one that is apparent but is not
the truth and the one that is not apparent but is the ultimate truth
- 'samvriti satya' and 'paramartha satya'; the first is aid to
discover the latter.
250. samkalpa, vikalpa -will, counter-will, premise, counter-premise.
251. ayoniga mansikara- an unmeditational mentalisation wherein
'anitya' is not viewed as 'anitya' etc.
252. ~i-paryuthhiina - distraction of eyes or sight from dhyana.
253. viparyiisa - reversion; overthrow.
254. vijiiiina - cognitive insight.
255. achintya - Itt. 'oeyond thinking', subtle, un-definable.
256. abhisamaya-gotra buddhi - 'gotra' is caste or class; the gotra is
dedded in accordance with the 'subha' and 'asubha' seeds or the
quantity of 'gunas' of a practitioner; of the five 'gotras'
enumerated in Mahavyutpatti 'sravakayana abhisamaya gotra' is
the first; 'abhisamya' means 'seeing the satyas in 'anasrava' or
257. niryiiQll - going out, departure, release.
258. a-niryiiQll - non-release.
259. vyavartana - averting; turning away from.
260. kudristi - lit. bad sight; heterodox, philosophical doctrine.
261. skandha- lit. 'heap' five aggregates of the world of names or
forms; the five 'skandhas' are 'rupa', 'vedana', 'samjiia',
'samskiira' and 'vijniina'.
262. pudgala nairiitmya - non-self nature of beings.
263. trai-dhatuka - the concept of the division of the world into the
three aggregates of 'kiima-dhatu', 'riipa-dhatu' and 'ariipa-dhatu'
- the world of desire, the world of forms, the world without
forms; 'dhatu' means aggregates of the same class.
264. vijiiapti- it is 'chitta', 'manasa', 'vijnana'; according to112
Vijiianavada, 'trai-dhatuka is also a 'vikalpa' of the mind ('chitta');
this 'vikalpa' is called 'vijiiana'; all dharmas and the imagined
'self' are the result of 'vijiiana' or 'vijiiapti'.
vijiiana-vadi - one who believes in the yogachara or vijiiana-
vada school; he regards 'vijiiana', i.e. 'chitta' 'manasa' and
'buddhi' as the only 'satya' (true) 'padartha' (thing), because
'buddhi' alone can observe all things to be in-substantial.
anta- end, boundary, limits; the two 'antas' are the 'beginning'
and the 'end'.
utpada-bhang - generation, creation, - break in.
pratitya-samutpada - dependent origination, chain of causation
which brings about an uninterrupted flux of phenomena; it is
depicted as a wheel with twelve spokes, the twelve 'nidanas'
(links) of creation.
jagata -from the root 'gama' (gachha) to go; hence 'jagata' is
that which moves, the entire world of beings and things.
jiiana-maya - illusion generated by knowledge.
nirmita, nirmiiQa - created; the first of the four-fold wealth of the
fruits of 'dharma-kaya' and it consists of the generation of great
'bahya sampata' (material prosperity).
kautiihalama - curiosity, unusual phenomena, curious frivolity.
sambodhi - true enlightenment.
tri-bhava - the three states ('bhavas') in which a pudgala
functions- 'ateeta bhava' (past), 'pratyutpanna bhava' (present)
and 'anagata. bhava' (future).
anabhisamskiira - immaculate state.
adhimukti bhumi - the first of the ten stages of a bodhisattva; in
this he realises 'pudgal nairatmya' and his 'dri~ti' becomes pure.
adhimukti - devotion; devotional surrender is the root of a
vedana- feeling, it arises from touch or contact ('sparsa'); there
are five bodily ('kayiki') 'vedanas' born of the five senses, one
mental ('chaitski') or 'vedanas' born of the mind.
samjiia- that state of consciousness through 'sukha-dukha' joy
and suffering - when one sees objects as they are.
samskara - the fourth 'skandha' the volitional aspect of
aggregates; lit. 'mental constituents' gathered from previous lives
through good and bad karma.
nirodha - cessation.
samudaya - generation, aggregation.
bhadracharya - conduct behoving a noble practitioner.
dana - giving; one of the six perfections.
anuttara samyaka-sambodhi - supreme transcendental enlighten-GLOSSARY-I
286. tri-siksa' -also called 'visuddhi marga, comprising 'sila-siksa',
'samadhi sikSa' and 'prajna'- teachings on conduct, meditation
287. purva-g:imini - leading.
288. hetu- cause, when one 'dharma' is the direct cause of another
'dharma' (phemenon), it is called 'hetu pratyaya', causal factor.
289. pratyaya- factor; its four types are, 'hetu pratyaya', 'samanantar
pratyaya', 'alambana pratyaya' and 'adhipati pratyaya'.
290. nidana - links; twelve links of causation.
291. purvangma - forerunner.
292. ayatana - entrance, door, there are twelve 'ayatanas'.
293. riipa-kaya- also called 'nirmai;la kaya', the Buddha's physical
body with which he serves the cause of the 'sattvas' well-being,
preaches 'dhyana', 'samadhi', 'dana', 'sila', 'prajiia' etc.; it is
endless in number, the historical sakyamuni having been one
294. samjna - awareness of an object.
295. akSaya - perpetual.
296. dwadasavastha vise~a- twelve special stages of 'pratitya samut-
pada' mentioned by the Lord in Dvadasanga-siitra.
297. bhiimis- stages of a boddhisattva's 'sadhana'.
298. Buddha-bhiimi - the final stage of supreme absorption and
enlightenment which is both immeasurable and unlimited.
299. driQhatar adhimukti - firmer faith.
300. mara- the evil one, the tempter, the arch demon who tries to
wean away a 'sadhaka' from his path. He was overcome by Lord
Buddha during his final moments of enlightenment.
301. dharaQi - mystic 'mantras' adopted from the siitra; prayers
addressed to Buddha, bodhisattvas and Tara; has protective
potency through ritualistic practice during disease and famine etc.
302. vimokSa - release, emancipation.
303. abhijiia - supernatural faculty of Buddhas and boddhisattvas of
six kinds taking any form at will; hearing upto any distance; seeing
upto any distance; penetrating others' thoughts, knowing
everybody's antecedents; freedom from the fear of cyclic rounds.
304. mridu- one of the three types of 'kSanti' or 'ruchi' (interest) in
the discovery of the meaning of 'arya satyas'; such interest is born
from 'murdhana' or 'si~' (the top) of four 'kusala mulas' (root-
305. madhya - as above (304).
306. adhimatra - as above (304).
307. adhimatrata- the generation of 'laukika agradharmas' which are114
transitory and unclean in content and have their support in
'dukha' born of desires ('kamapta dukha').
nirvedha-bhiigiya - the capacity to properly probe and analyse
'satyas' and destroy all doubts; so called owing to the probing
faculty or the power to pirece being unassailable.
u~magata- the fire (u~ma) which bums away the kle§a fuel;
considered to be one of the root merits ('ku§ala mula').
murdhana- it is synonymous with 'praka~a· or upward rise,
generates 'k§anti' (interest), the apex of four 'ku§ala miilas'.
vridhiiloka samadhi- enhanced-light stage of meditation.
kgiinti-nirvedhiya- capable of being analysed through 'k§anti'.
eka-de§a-prav~ samiidhi - medatational state of one-pointed-
(Note: the four 'nirvedha-bhiigiya' are the four 'ku§ala-mulas',
• u~magata ••• m urdhana.' • ksanti. (' ruchi ') • agradharmas.;
'agrardharma's are dharmas pertaining to 'Agra-yiina' or
agradharma nirvedha-bhiigiya- the faL-ulty of pJ3)bing into and
pursuing the boddhisattva 's dharmas.
anantarya samadhi- innermost absorption in 'anantarya miirga'
or 'pramar;ta', the yogi first realises the truth about 'kiimadhatu'
and in the very fir..1 moment is shorn of doubt.
angiini- components, parts; also the synonym of 'hetu' (cause).
agradharma- the charya or the conduct of the boddhisattva.
dar§ana-miirg- the path of constant practice which refines one's
vision but does not totally uproot attachment and envy; the yogi
rises up from the 'dar§na miirga' to enter the bhavanii miirga;
dar§ana marga initiates the yogi into the search for the meaning of
the four noble truths with the resolve: I will know.
samudiigamatii - arising, generation.
dharmadhiitu- also called 'dharmiiyatana', 'vedana skandha',
'samjiiii', 'samsakiira' and 'avijiiapti' and the three 'asamskrita'-
these seven constitute 'dharmadhiitu'.
dvitiya bhumi- second stage of a boddhisattva's siidhanii.
angas - components.
a-samudachara - non-generation.
sutra-dhiiraQii - remembering spiritual teachings and oral
in!>1ructions by memorising them.
jalpa - frivolity of speech.
satyas- the noble truths of suffering, the cause af suffering, the
cessation of suffering and the way to non-suffering.
nimitta - it succeeds 'da!'Sna' practices, it is the seed result in theGLOSSARY-I
'adhyatma' sense of initial cognition.
329. nirvatsaha -lazy, inactive.
330. nischhidra animittavihara - wandering in the state of un-diluted
331. dharma-deganii - instructions in dharma.
332. parylya - equivalence; factors.
333. nirukti - derivation.
334. samvida - insight, understanding.
335. buddha-kgetra - Buddha field.
336. parishata- 'pariviira', creatiQn, entourage.
337. nirmal}ll - the creation of extraordinary apparent objects; the
equivalent of 'maya' (illusion), 'svapna' (dream), 'marichika'
(mirage), 'bimba' (reflection); example: turning pebble into a gold
338. sattva-paripaka- maturation of the beings' well-being through
339. loka-dhatu- consists of 'kiima-dhatu', 'riipa-dhatu' and 'ariipa-
340. skandha-pari§uddhi - cleansing of the impurities born of five
341. nirmiiQa-va§ita- power of practising total 'nirmiil}ll'.
342. asakta - detached.
343. apratihata - invulnerable.
344. svayamabhu Buddha- 'iidi-buddha', this concept finds mention
in Kiiranda-vyuha siitra as the creator of the world; 'svayambhu'
or 'adinatha' was there before the world and from his samadhi he
produced the 'jagata'; Avalokite§vara was a 'sattva' of
'svayamabhu Buddha who helped create the world; the sun and
the moon were born out of Avalokite§vara's eyes, Mahesvara from
the forehead, Brahma from the shoulder and NariiyaQa from the
345. sambhoga-kiiyii - subtler than his nirmiir,la-kaya, this body of
Lord Buddha is very effulgent and ever emanates golden rays,
through this body the lord gave his Mahayana-siitra sermon on
Gridhra-kuta (Vulture Peak) and in Sukhavati.
346. nirmiiQa-kaya - the purely physical body of Lord Buddha in
which he manifests himself for ministering to the well-being of
'sattvas'; it can manifest itself in innumerable forms and the
historical Sakyamuni was one such.
347. dharma-kaya- the 'paramartha' or subtle body of Lord Buddha,
it is enternal ('ananta'), immeasurable ('aparmeya') and
indescriable (anirvachaniya); it is the same in the case of all the
Buddhas, everlasting ('nitya') true ('satya') and of unlimited116
attributes ('ananta SU9a-yukta') it is the lord's. true body, the
equivalent of 'tathata', 'dhanna-dhatu', 'tathagata-garbha' etc.GLOSSARY - II
1. Kumarabhuta- lit. 'one ever young'; one of the epithets of
Manju~ri. the bodhisattva of wisdom.
2. sarvajiiati- lit. 'omniscence'; in Mahayana parlance it denotes
the 'jiiiina' of the ultimate nature of all dharmas which is
3. hetu- lit. 'cause'; certain factors ('pratyaya') combine with the
main cause or 'hetu' to produce a certain result ('hetuphala').
4. pratigha - hindrance, obstruction.
5. nirapekSa-bhiiva - detachment.
6. abhriinta - unequivocal, not dubious.
7. avikala- steadfast.
8. hetu-pratyayas - causal factors; for example the seed could be
called the 'hetu' and the earth, the sun, the water, which help the
seed to sprout, are the 'pratyayas'.
9. vineya-jana- those to be instructed; pupils.
10. pariavasiina- end, termination.
11. sambhiira - accumulation, collection.
12. sattva-dhiitu- the world of sentient beings.
13. ayogriha - house made of lac.
14. pravritti- inclination, tendency.
15. sa~ra - the cyclic rounds of birth and death.
16. madhyastha-bhiiva - even-mindedness.
17. saralati- ease, felicity, simplicity.
18. chitta-santina - tendicies of mind.
19. trividha dukha- triple suffering; 'daihika' (bodily), 'daivika'
(destined) and 'bhautika' (worldly).
20. kiirpaQya - poverty, penury.
21. upaghiita- hurt, stroke, violation.
22. ku~ti- lit. 'faulty vision'; a heterodox philosophical vision.
23. prapiita - sheer fall, precipice.
24. vipariniima- ripening, transformation.
25. kiimiivachara- the sattva who roams about in 'kama-dhiitu' or
the realm of desires.
26. madhyapakSa - middle way.
27. the ten directions are; the four cardinal directions, four subsidiary
directions and zenith and nadir.
28. n~anna -complete.
29. ch~otpiida - generation of mind.
30. anuttar samyaka-sambodhi- transcendental enlightenment.
31. samvara- lit. 'detachment' or 'virati', the vows to practise ·~na•
a text on the subject of ·~iJa' transformation.
-feeling or 'bhava' it is that which helps 'karma' to
ripen, the root of 'hhava' (birth) and 'punarbhava' (rebirth); lit. to
grow, to fructify.
udraka - known as Udraka-Rama-putra, a well-known ascetic to
whom prince Siddartha went after renouncing his home; not
satisfied with the answer to his questions by Ananda Kalama, the
first asectic he had approached, he repeated his queries to the
Samkhaya master, Udraka; not satisfied with his answers too,
Siddhartha went to the 'amthha' tree to meditate.
paryaya - synonym; equivalent.
Vinay- rule; Lord Buddha's words about rules and regulations of
conduct for 'Bhik~us· and others are collected in Vinay-pitaka.
dukha-skandha- dukha heaps.
anukiila - beneficial, efficacious.
cheevara- a buddhist monk's garment or cloak.
prakriti - diversion, disturbance.
prati~epa- repudiation, contradiction.
~ravaka samvara- 'sravaka' vows.
pratividhana - precaution, prevention; counteracting.
parajika - the four parajika dharmas are stealing, killing,
unchastity and falsely claiming superhuman powers; one guilty of
dvada~anga- twelve points or aspects stressed in Lord Buddha's
discourses probably refers to 'Dvada~anga-siitra' which deals with
the exposition of the twelve 'angas' of 'pratitya-samutpada'.
neetartha siitra - intelligible siitras.
neyartha siitra - dubious of interpretation siitras.
sringataka - cross-ways; road junction; a point where several
bodhi-manda - adorned with bodhi.
paryanka - squatting posture; doubling of legs.
Bhataraka Vairochana- name of a Tathagata; 'bhattaraka' is an
honorific for a worship-worthy, venerable scholar; 'vairochana'
means the illuminator.
sukhasana - comfortable seat.
priti - peace and contentment of body and mind; it is of five
types; '~udrika' wbicb creates horripilation, '~al}ika', which is
like a lightning flash moment by moment; 'avakrantika', which
overwhelms like sea waves; 'avakranta' which disappears like sea
waves; 'udvega', which is full of tremendous force; 'sphuraoa',
which is long-lasting and permeates the whole hody.
geya - lit. 'that which can be sung', one of the metres of 'arya-
55. vyUaraJ}a- one of the nine 'angas' of 'sutra-pitaka'; herein Lord
Buddha foretold about the future degradation of 'bhikSus'.
56. gatha- lyrical ballads; stories of 'bhikSus' and bhikSunis in prose
57. undana - highly elevating words of the Lord, collected into eight
parts of Udana-varga, also contains parables.
58. nidana - stories.
59. avadana - lit. 'biography', contains the lives of great buddhist
60. iti-virttaka- divided into 112 divisions in mixed prose and verse,
contain the teachings of the Lord in earlier times.
61. jataka- about 550 tales of Buddha's previous lives.
62. Vaipulya - comprises nine important Mahayana siitras;
'Astasahsrika prajiia paramita, 'Saddharma pundrika', 'Lalita-
vistara ', 'Lankavatara '; 'Suvan_1a-prabha~a', 'Ganda-vyuha',
'Tathagata-guhyaka', 'Samadhiraja' and 'Da5a-bhumi5vara', these
are called 'Vaipulya-sutras owing to their comprehensiveness
63. adbhuta dharma - one of the nine 'angas' of dharma literature;
contains descriptions of the miracles and mysteries of Tathagata.
64. upadesa-varga- comprises the Lord's discourses.
65. kiya-prasrabdhi - hodily peace.
66. vyiseka - diversion, disturbance.
67. pudgala dharmas- individual tendencies.
68. pancha-skandha - 'skandha' means a heap, a group or
'samudaya'; the five mental tendencies: 'rupa' (form
comprising physical tendencies), 'vedana' (feeling), 'samjiia'
(cognition), 'samskara' (collection of mental aggregates)
and 'vijiiana'(knowledge of external things and internal
69. dvadasayatanas- 'ayatana' is qefined as 'ayama tanoti iti'
'ayatana', 'ayama' means 'pravesalma' or entrance, the twelve
(dvadasa) entrances (ayatanas) are the six senses and six sense
ohje<.ts; eye, e-c~r, nose, ton!,>ue, touch, intellect and form, sound,
smell, taste, touch, dharmas (not within the ambit of external
70. a~da5a dhatu - six sense objects, six senses and six cognitions.
71. chitta-vipathana svabhiva- the nature of appearances in the
72. sisrava - those which produce unclean 'dharmas'.
73. anasrava - clean.
74. vedana - feeling.120
75. samjiia -
76. samskara - mental aggregates.
77. vijiiina - special cognition.
78. parihara - relinquishment, giving up.
79. kalpana- imagination, fictional mind.
80. ar.u;J.i - tinder stick for producing fire.
81. animitta yoga- 'dhyana' leads to 'vimokSa' and 'vimok§a' leads
to yoga; in each stage one power is attained; the first stage is
'§unyatii' and the second is 'animitta'.
82. nimimittatii - the awareness of the emptiness of phenomena.
83. aprat~thata dhyiina - disturbed meditation, without fixation on
'n1pa' and 'samsiira'.
84. anupalambha dhyiina - non-perceptive meditation.
85. prachiira - menifestation, instigation.
86. anabhisamskara-viihitii - an approach of natural ease.
87. bhoga- taste, enjoyment.
88. abhoga - effort.
89. prahara -lit. 'stroke', division of time, about one eighth part
of a day.
90. iirya-bhadracharyii - the routine conduct of a noble being.
91. anapagati- non-falling down, non-deviation, non-deflection.
92. paripaka - maturation.
93. Ka§iraja probably refers to the story of 'sivi' the king of ViiriiQaSi
whose adherance to compassion was put to severe test by the
devas. Indra, disguised as a falcon, pounced upon its victim, a
pigeon. As the king tried to rescue the bird, the falcon said, "you
are depriving me of my right, I have a claim on my shikiir." The
just and compassionate king offered his own flesh if the falcon let
off the pigeon. The falcon agreed but the helpless bird grew
heavier in the scales as king Sivi went on slicing flesh from his
own body to equal the weight of the pigeon. Pleased with such
sense of compassion Indra appeared in his true form, blessed the
king and restored him back to health as before.
~ kusala mUias - meritorious roots of actions as give good results.
95. tirthikas- brahmin scholars who did not subscribe to Buddha's
gospel; some of the famous tirthika teachers contemporaneous
with Buddha were; Poorna-kasyapa, Maskari Goshiili-putra,
Sanjayi vairathi-putra, Ajit kesa-kambala, Kakuda-kiityiiyana,
96. prayoga - exercise, experiment.
97. pri~talabdha - past achievement, inherited, previously
98. apo~ - non-performance, non-stability.GLOSSARY-D
99. a-pudgala - non-being, non-self existence of beings.
100. i~aya-nirvioa - aimed release as in Hinayina; 'i~aya' is
objective; nirviQa as an objective.
101. riddhi- powers of special attainment.
102. dUa-bh11111iMm - one of the most well known 'vaipulya sutras'
which was first translated into Chinese in 297 A.D. by Dharma-
103. kirya-nispatti- completeness, proficiency in work.
104. p~labdha - later attainment.
105. vyavadioa- cleansing, 'vi~uddhati'.GLOSSARY - III
1. aparimita -limitless.
2. apramiiQa- also termed 'apramir}ya', because countless 'jivas'
(creatures) are the 'alambana' of this 'samadhi', which comprises
'maitri' Oove), 'karul;li' (compassion), 'mudita' (joy) and 'upekSa'
(detachment), the four 'brahma-viharas'; the tenn 'apramiiQa' is
used in 'arya-dharma' scriptures.
3. dau¢lula - wickedness.
4. nimitta - an object, an aim, its motive cause.
5. nirvilkalpa pratibimbakama - a reflection, which is the result of
6. savikalpa pratibimbakama - a reflection, which is the result of
7. vastu-paryantata - the ultimate of things.
8. karya-parin~patti - fulfilment of work or objective.
9. avikalpa - without alternatives, undifferentiated.
10. tattva-nirupana vikalpa - analytical option.
11. vastu-paryantatva- the limits of phenomena.
12. paryanta -limit, end, boundary.
13. rasayana - elixir.
14. asraya-pravritti- attainable through the path of transcendental or
undifferentiated 'jiiana ', 'buddhattva'.
15. karya samapatti- absorption in work.
16. §ruta - that which is heard from an instructor or a teacher's lips.
17. chintana - reflection, contemplation. 'srilta-maya' 'chitana-
maya' and 'bhavana-maya' are practising ('prayogika') dhannas.
18. anuvyanjana - artistry, expression.
19. parsana-matt4ala- boddhisattvas, jinas- the family ('parivara')
of Buddha; his entourage.
20. riipi-ariipa-bheda - the world is made up of names and fonns
('name- rupatmaka'); both are related to skandhas; the difference
of 'fonn' and 'non-fonn'- riipi (with form) and 'ariipa' (without
21. riipa-skandha - fonn heaps.
22. vedana-skandha - feeling heaps.
23. apratibhasa - non-reflection.
24. vastu-sata -the ultimate or 'paramartha' of things; it is 'nirvikalpa'.
25. bhava-'is-ness'- feeling thereof, they are '§unya' in essence'
26. prapanch - falsehood, illusion.
27. nimimitta yoga - undifferentiated yoga.
28. vyapaka - pervasive.
29. vyapya - object of pervasiveness.124
kausidya -laziness, lethargy, opposite of valour ('veerya').
laya - lethargic absorption of mind.
audhatya - insolence of mind.
anibhoga - non-effort.
iibhoga - effort.
~ta-prahiit;la samskiira- eight 'samskiiras' that help removal of
graddhii- mental bliss, faith.
chhanda- desire to work ('kartu-kiimyatii').
vyiiyiima - exercise; exposition.
prasrabdhi - calmness; peace, activeness of body; opposite of
41. smriti- recollectedness.
42. sampraji'iiiya - awareness.
43. chetanii - that consciousness which understands • samyaka hetu'
and 'mithyii hetu' characteristics.
44. anusmriti -lit. 'to remember again and again or 'anunipa lllllriti', i.e.
proper rememberance of that which is of benefit to the yogi in his
'siidhanii'; the ten kinds of the objects of 'anusmriti' are; 'buddhii-
nusnuiti', 'dhanniinusmriti', 'sarnghanusmriti', 'mtanusnuiti', 'liibhiinu-
smriti', 'devatiin-nusmriti ', 'kiiyiigatiitma-smriti ', 'maraQiinusmriti',
45. chitta-nirodha - cessation of the mind.
46. chaturtha-dhyiina -the last of the four 'dhyiinas' or 'dhyiina-
cha~' specified for a yogi, it has two parts; 'upekgii-vedanii'
and 'ekiigratii' -feeling of detachment and concentration, all
'vitarka' (contradictions) disappear and 'detachment becomes
totally refmed during this meditation.
47. asattvas - non-true existence of beings.
48. Diirikii- daughter.
49. bahMruti - scholarly, erudite.
50. ayoniu - perversion (of belieO; wrong dharmas.
51. iijivakaviida- belief in destiny and that both the learned and the
ignorant lead their destined lives and moving through cyclic
existence and their • dukha '; it :believes neither in karma nor its
fruit, founded by Makkali Gosal, one of the six famous teachers
who were contemporaries of Buddha; Makkali lived in a hut
52. kgetra-pariguddhi - purification, sanctifying a (Buddha) - field,
(buddhatva' is attained through 'punya' and 'jiiiina'
accumulations; Buddhas, who do not enter •gunyatii' after
fulfilling their vow of service to 'sattvas' earn a field (' kgetra ') forGLOSSARY-III
themselves which is sacred and sanctified with divine
prabhii. - the gloss of divinity, aura.
parivara - the Buddha-family of boddhisattvas, 'jinas' divine
beings and deities who surround Buddha or live in their own
different spheres like 'sukhii.vati'.
mahabhoga - having a large compass, great enjoyment,
providing others with it.
pratimoksa samvara- the vow for the deliverance of 'sattvas'
from 'samsara '.
aupalambhika- one who makes available, a donor, a giver.
priimrista - violated, affiicted with disease.
diina-pariyesthita - lapses in giving.
parikalpita - imagined, fictionalised with 'hetu' (cause) and
'pratyaya' (casual factor).
ni~parikalpa- without 'hetu' and 'pratyaya' absolute.
vyiikaraQa - 'vyiikhya ', exposition, explanation.
Dipankara - a bodhisattva.
animitta-vihara-paramatii- capacity to roam in 'animitta'.
avaivartika - not-returning.
mridu indriya- soft senses, gentle.
tikSaQ.a indriya- sharp senses.
samudachii.ra - appearance, manifestation.
parisi~ta- appendix, residual; also name of a class of works
tyaga - renunciation.
mahatyaga - great renunciation.
ati-tyaga - total renunciation.
gomaya-maQ.c;lala- 'maQ.c;lala' made of 'gomaya' or cow-dung.
maQ.Qala- circular disc, orb.
nirodha samapatti - the absorption state when there is cessation
of all dharmas.
visuddhatartama k:1aQ.a- 'ksar:ta' or 'vise~a· is the experience of
'paramartha dravya' (the ultimate substance) which is 'ariipi'
(formless); while 'jfiana ', Dinnaga speaks of as 'pratyaksa'
(manifest) and 'anumana' (guess) as its two prongs, because a
subject is either 'vise~a· (special) or 'samiinya' (ordinary); 'vise~a·
is the equivalent of 'ksaQ.a', because it is that which is realised
through 'vivechana' (analysis) and is free from all 'samanya'
dharma-dhatu - the true essence of things, the equivalent of
'tathata', 'sunyatii', 'bhiita-koti'.
New Delhi@ PARMANANDA SHARMA
First published, 1997
Published by P.K. Goel for Aditya Prakashan, F-14/65, Model Town II,
Delhi- 110 009 and printed at Rajkamal Electric Press, Delhi -110 033.•